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Expert Rev Med Devices. 2013 Jul;10(4):453-9. doi: 10.1586/17434440.2013.811842.

Onyx® in the management of cranial arteriovenous malformations.

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The Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Rensselaer, NY, USA.


The ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx® (ev3, Inc., MN, USA), is an embolic agent used in the management of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and was approved by the US FDA in 2005. Use of Onyx has resulted in higher curative rates compared with previous embolic agents such as N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Onyx has several advantages over previous embolic agents. For instance, Onyx is a copolymer and does not adhere to catheters but solidifies slowly owing to the diffusion of its solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. This review focuses on different results obtained from the experience of different neurointerventionalists with an emphasis on the aim to cure. The studies presented are compared in terms of curative rates, morbidity and mortality. Ideas are presented for future treatment options for AVM rupture using nanotargeted therapy with the guide of specific markers highly expressed on the surface of cells or tissues of interest. Such nanotargeted therapy might transform AVM treatment with new embolic agents.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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