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1.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018 May 2;20(1):38. doi: 10.1186/s13058-018-0965-3.

Assessing brain volume changes in older women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a brain magnetic resonance imaging pilot study.

Author information

1
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA. Bechen@coh.org.
2
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Magnetic Resonance Innovations, Inc., Detroit, MI, USA.
3
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.
4
Department of Population Science, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.
5
Center for Cancer and Aging, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.
6
Division of Mathematical Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.
7
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.
8
Neurocognitive Research Lab, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 641 Lexington Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY, 10022, USA.
9
Center for Neuroimaging, Indiana University School of Medicine, 355 West 16th Street, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
10
Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 641 Lexington Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY, 10022, USA.
11
Division of Neurology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.
12
Department of Medical Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cognitive decline is among the most feared treatment-related outcomes of older adults with cancer. The majority of older patients with breast cancer self-report cognitive problems during and after chemotherapy. Prior neuroimaging research has been performed mostly in younger patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in brain volumes and cognition in older women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.

METHODS:

Women aged ≥ 60 years with stage I-III breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing with the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox for Cognition and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to chemotherapy, and again around one month after the last infusion of chemotherapy. Brain volumes were measured using Neuroreader™ software. Longitudinal changes in brain volumes and neuropsychological scores were analyzed utilizing linear mixed models.

RESULTS:

A total of 16 patients with breast cancer (mean age 67.0, SD 5.39 years) and 14 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age 67.8, SD 5.24 years) were included: 7 patients received docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC) and 9 received chemotherapy regimens other than TC (non-TC). There were no significant differences in segmented brain volumes between the healthy control group and the chemotherapy group pre-chemotherapy (p > 0.05). Exploratory hypothesis generating analyses focusing on the effect of the chemotherapy regimen demonstrated that the TC group had greater volume reduction in the temporal lobe (change = - 0.26) compared to the non-TC group (change = 0.04, p for interaction = 0.02) and healthy controls (change = 0.08, p for interaction = 0.004). Similarly, the TC group had a decrease in oral reading recognition scores (change = - 6.94) compared to the non-TC group (change = - 1.21, p for interaction = 0.07) and healthy controls (change = 0.09, p for interaction = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

There were no significant differences in segmented brain volumes between the healthy control group and the chemotherapy group; however, exploratory analyses demonstrated a reduction in both temporal lobe volume and oral reading recognition scores among patients on the TC regimen. These results suggest that different chemotherapy regimens may have differential effects on brain volume and cognition. Future, larger studies focusing on older adults with cancer on different treatment regimens are needed to confirm these findings.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01992432 . Registered on 25 November 2013. Retrospectively registered.

KEYWORDS:

Brain MRI; Brain volume; Breast cancer; Cancer-related cognitive impairment; Chemotherapy

2.
Neuroimage. 2018 Apr 25. pii: S1053-8119(18)30357-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.04.047. [Epub ahead of print]

Quantifying iron content in magnetic resonance imaging.

Author information

1
Magnetic Resonance Innovations, Inc., Bingham Farms, MI, 48025, USA.
2
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Bingham Farms, MI, 48025, USA.
3
Shanghai World Foreign Language Academy, Shanghai, China.
4
Magnetic Resonance Innovations, Inc., Bingham Farms, MI, 48025, USA; The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Bingham Farms, MI, 48025, USA; Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA. Electronic address: nmrimaging@aol.com.

Abstract

Measuring iron content has practical clinical indications in the study of diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, ferritinopathies and multiple sclerosis as well as in the quantification of iron content in microbleeds and oxygen saturation in veins. In this work, we review the basic concepts behind imaging iron using T2, T2*, T2', phase and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the human brain, liver and heart, followed by the applications of in vivo iron quantification in neurodegenerative diseases, iron tagged cells and ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles.

KEYWORDS:

Iron quantification; Iron tagged cells; Magnetic resonance imaging; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; USPIO contrast agents

3.
Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2018 Mar;8(2):123-134. doi: 10.21037/qims.2018.03.02.

Quantification of liver iron concentration using the apparent susceptibility of hepatic vessels.

Author information

1
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Bingham Farms, MI, USA.
2
School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
3
Department of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin 300192, China.
4
Siemens Healthcare, MR Collaborations NE Asia, Beijing 100010, China.
5
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

Abstract

Background:

The quantification of liver iron concentration (LIC) is important for the monitoring of the body iron level in patients with iron overload. Conventionally, LIC is quantified through R2 or R2* mapping using MRI. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative approach for LIC quantification through measuring the apparent susceptibility of hepatic vessels using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).

Methods:

QSM was performed in the liver region with the iterative susceptibility weighted imaging and mapping (iSWIM) algorithm, using the geometry of the vessels extracted from magnitude images as constraints. The susceptibilities of liver tissue were estimated from the apparent susceptibility of the hepatic veins and then converted to LIC. The accuracy of the proposed method was first validated using simulations, and then confirmed using in vivo data collected on 8 healthy controls and 11 patients at 3T. The effects of data acquisition parameters were studied using simulations, and the LICs estimated using QSM were compared with those estimated using R2* mapping.

Results:

Simulation results showed that the use of a 3D data acquisition protocol with higher image resolution led to improved accuracy in LIC quantification using QSM. Both simulations and in vivo data results demonstrated that the LICs estimated using the proposed QSM method agreed well with those estimated using R2* mapping. With the shortest echo time being 2.5ms in the multi-echo gradient echo sequence, simulations results showed that LIC up to 12.45 mg iron/g dry tissue can be quantified using the proposed QSM method. For the in vivo data, the highest LIC measured was 11.32 mg iron/g dry tissue.

Conclusions:

The proposed method offers a reliable and flexible way to quantify LIC and has the potential to extend the range of LIC that can be accurately measured using R2* and QSM.

KEYWORDS:

Liver iron concentration (LIC); R2* mapping; quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM)

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of Interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

4.
Am J Hypertens. 2018 Jul 16;31(8):865-868. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpy060.

MRI and Neuropsychological Correlates in African Americans With Hypertension and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

Author information

1
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wayne State University and Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
2
Department of Psychology and Neuropsychology, Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
3
Department of Emergency Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
4
Department of Radiology,Wayne State University and Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
5
Department of Emergency Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
6
Department of Emergency Medicine and Integrative Biosciences Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

African Americans (AAs) are at high risk for hypertension (HTN) and poor blood pressure (BP) control. Persistently elevated BP contributes to cardiovascular morbidity. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are a definable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker of cerebrovascular injury linked to impairments in higher level thinking (i.e., executive functions), memory formation, and speed of perceptual-motor processing.

METHODS:

This subinvestigation evaluated neuropsychological functioning in association with WMH on brain MRIs in 23 otherwise-healthy hypertensive AAs participating in an NIH-funded study of the effects of vitamin D on BP and cardiac remodeling in AA patients 30-74 years of age with HTN and left ventricular hypertrophy. Neuropsychological assessment included psychomotor processing speed [(Symbol Digit Modality Test (SDMT) and Trail Making Test], executive functioning (Controlled Oral Word Association Test and Trail Making Test Part B), memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), and fine motor functioning (Finger Tapping).

RESULTS:

Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were found between volume of periventricular lesions and trails A (r = 0.51) and dominant hand finger tapping speed (r = -0.69) and between subcortical lesion volume and trails A (r = 0.60), both dominant (r = -0.62) and nondominant hand finger tapping speed (r = -0.76) and oral SDMT (r = -0.60); higher lesion volumes correlated to worse neuropsychological performance.

CONCLUSIONS:

Psychomotor tests including the Trail Making Test and finger tapping speed are sensitive indicators of subclinical deficits in mental processing speed and could serve as early markers of deep subcortical cerebrovascular injury in otherwise-healthy individuals with uncontrolled chronic HTN.

PMID:
29672672
PMCID:
PMC6049020
[Available on 2019-07-16]
DOI:
10.1093/ajh/hpy060
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5.
Bioorg Med Chem. 2018 Apr 4. pii: S0968-0896(18)30436-X. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2018.04.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Screening of ligands for redox-active europium using magnetic resonance imaging.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, MI 48202, United States.
2
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, United States.
3
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, United States; Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI 48201, United States.
4
National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, United States.
5
Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, MI 48202, United States; Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI 48201, United States. Electronic address: mallen@chem.wayne.edu.

Abstract

We report a screening procedure to predict ligand coordination to EuII and EuIII using magnetic resonance imaging in which bright images indicate complexation and dark images indicate no complexation. Here, paramagnetic GdIII is used as a surrogate for EuIII in the screening procedure to enable detection with magnetic resonance imaging. The screening procedure was tested using a set of eight ligands with known coordination to EuII and EuIII, and results were found to be consistent with expected binding. Validation of the screening procedure with known coordination chemistry enables use with new ligands in the future.

KEYWORDS:

Coordination chemistry; Europium; Magnetic resonance imaging; Screening

6.
Neuroradiology. 2018 Mar;60(3):235-237. doi: 10.1007/s00234-018-1977-5. Epub 2018 Jan 13.

The T1 shine through effect on susceptibility weighted imaging: an under recognized phenomenon.

Author information

1
Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, 399 Bathurst St, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 2S8, Canada. charlie.ct.hsu@gmail.com.
2
Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.
3
Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
4
Department of Medical Imaging, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
5
Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, 399 Bathurst St, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 2S8, Canada.

Publication type

Publication type

7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Feb;98(2):497-504. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0309. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Investigate Potential Etiologies of Brain Swelling in Pediatric Cerebral Malaria.

Author information

1
Faculty of Medical Radiation Sciences, Lusaka Apex Medical University, Lusaka, Zambia.
2
Department of Imaging Sciences, Neuroradiology Division, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York.
3
Malawi MRI Center, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi.
4
Blantyre Malaria Project, University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi.
5
Department of Osteopathic Medical Specialties, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.
6
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.
7
Department of Paediatric and Child Health, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.
8
Medical and Biological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland.
9
American Society for Clinical Pathologists, Washington, DC.
10
Radiology Division, Cancer Diseases Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.
11
Radiology Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.
12
Magnetic Resonance Innovations, Inc., Detroit, Michigan.
13
Epilepsy Care Team, Chikankata Hospital, Mazabuka, Zambia.
14
Department of Neurology, Strong Epilepsy Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York.

Abstract

The hallmark of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM) is sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature. Malawi-based research using 0.35 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) established that severe brain swelling is associated with fatal CM, but swelling etiology remains unclear. Autopsy and clinical studies suggest several potential etiologies, but limitations of 0.35 T MRI precluded optimal investigations into swelling pathophysiology. A 1.5 T MRI in Zambia allowed for further investigations including susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). SWI is an ideal sequence for identifying regions of sequestration and microhemorrhages given the ferromagnetic properties of hemozoin and blood. Using 1.5 T MRI, Zambian children with retinopathy-confirmed CM underwent imaging with SWI, T2, T1 pre- and post-gadolinium, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficients and T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Sixteen children including two with moderate/severe edema were imaged; all survived. Gadolinium extravasation was not seen. DWI abnormalities spared the gray matter suggesting vasogenic edema with viable tissue rather than cytotoxic edema. SWI findings consistent with microhemorrhages and parasite sequestration co-occurred in white matter regions where DWI changes consistent with vascular congestion were seen. Imaging findings consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome were seen in children who subsequently had a rapid clinical recovery. High field MRI indicates that vascular congestion associated with parasite sequestration, local inflammation from microhemorrhages and autoregulatory dysfunction likely contribute to brain swelling in CM. No gross radiological blood brain barrier breakdown or focal cortical DWI abnormalities were evident in these children with nonfatal CM.

PMID:
29313473
PMCID:
PMC5929182
[Available on 2019-02-01]
DOI:
10.4269/ajtmh.17-0309
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8.
J Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 Jul;48(1):283-289. doi: 10.1002/jmri.25917. Epub 2017 Dec 23.

Quantitative Flow Imaging in Human Umbilical Vessels In Utero Using Nongated 2D Phase Contrast MRI.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University College of Engineering, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
3
Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland, and Detroit, Michigan, USA.
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
6
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.
7
Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Volumetric assessment of afferent blood flow rate provides a measure of global organ perfusion. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PCMRI) is a reliable tool for volumetric flow quantification, but given the challenges with motion and lack of physiologic gating signal, such studies, in vivo on the human placenta, are scant.

PURPOSE:

To evaluate and apply a nongated (ng) PCMRI technique for quantifying blood flow rates in utero in umbilical vessels.

STUDY TYPE:

Prospective study design.

STUDY POPULATION:

Twenty-four pregnant women with median gestational age (GA) 30 4/7 weeks and interquartile range (IQR) 8 1/7 weeks.

FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE:

All scans were performed on a 3.0T Siemens Verio system using the ng-PCMRI technique.

ASSESSMENT:

The GA-dependent increase in umbilical vein (UV) and arterial (UA) flow was compared to previously published values. Systematic error to be expected from ng-PCMRI, in the context of pulsatile UA flow and partial voluming, was studied through Monte-Carlo simulations, as a function of resolution and number of averages.

STATISTICAL TESTS:

Correlation between the UA and UV was evaluated using a generalized linear model.

RESULTS:

Simulations showed that ng-PCMRI measurement variance reduced by increasing the number of averages. For vessels on the order of 2 voxels in radius, partial voluming led to 10% underestimation in the flow. In fetuses, the average flow rates in UAs and UV were measured to be 203 ± 80 ml/min and 232 ± 92 ml/min and the normalized average flow rates were 140 ± 59 ml/min/kg and 155 ± 57 ml/min/kg, respectively. Excellent correlation was found between the total arterial flow vs. corresponding venous flow, with a slope of 1.08 (P = 0.036).

DATA CONCLUSION:

Ng-PCMRI can provide accurate volumetric flow measurements in utero in the human umbilical vessels. Care needs to be taken to ensure sufficiently high-resolution data are acquired to minimize partial voluming-related errors.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

2 Technical Efficacy Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017.

KEYWORDS:

Monte Carlo simulations; fetal umbilical vessels; nongated phase contrast MRI; partial volume effects; pulsatility; volumetric umbilical flow

PMID:
29274251
PMCID:
PMC6015537
[Available on 2019-07-01]
DOI:
10.1002/jmri.25917
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9.
Metab Brain Dis. 2018 Feb;33(1):313-323. doi: 10.1007/s11011-017-0164-4. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

Reduced deep regional cerebral venous oxygen saturation in hemodialysis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, 300192, China.
2
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, N9A6T2, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
3
Department of Prophylactic Inoculation and Statistics, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, 300192, China.
4
School of Graduates, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 300193, China.
5
Department of Hemodialysis, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, 300192, China.
6
MR Collaboration, Siemens Healthcare, Northeast Asia, Beijing, 100102, China.
7
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.
8
Department of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, 300192, China. shenwen66happy@163.com.
9
Department of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, 300192, China. xiashuang77@163.com.

Abstract

Cerebral venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) is an important indicator of brain function. There was debate about lower cerebral oxygen metabolism in hemodialysis patients and there were no reports about the changes of deep regional cerebral SvO2 in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we aim to explore the deep regional cerebral SvO2 from straight sinus using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and the correlation with clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing. 52 hemodialysis patients and 54 age-and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. QSM reconstructed from original phase data of 3.0 T susceptibility-weighted imaging was used to measure the susceptibility of straight sinus. The susceptibility was used to calculate the deep regional cerebral SvO2 and compare with healthy individuals. Correlation analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between deep regional cerebral SvO2, clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing. The deep regional cerebral SvO2 of hemodialysis patients (72.5 ± 3.7%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (76.0 ± 2.1%) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the measured volume of interests of straight sinus between hemodialysis patients (250.92 ± 46.65) and healthy controls (249.68 ± 49.68) (P = 0.859). There were no significant correlations between the measured susceptibility and volume of interests in hemodialysis patients (P = 0.204) and healthy controls (P = 0.562), respectively. Hematocrit (r = 0.480, P < 0.001, FDR corrected), hemoglobin (r = 0.440, P < 0.001, FDR corrected), red blood cell (r = 0.446, P = 0.003, FDR corrected), dialysis duration (r = 0.505, P = 0.002, FDR corrected) and parathyroid hormone (r = -0.451, P = 0.007, FDR corrected) were risk factors for decreased deep regional cerebral SvO2 in patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of hemodialysis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (P < 0.001). However, the deep regional cerebral SvO2 did not correlate with MMSE scores (P = 0.630). In summary, the decreased deep regional cerebral SvO2 occurred in hemodialysis patients and dialysis duration, parathyroid hormone, hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell may be clinical risk factors.

KEYWORDS:

Cerebral vein; Cerebral venous oxygen saturation; Dialysis duration; Hemodialysis; Susceptibility mapping; Susceptibility weighted imaging

10.
Eur Radiol. 2018 May;28(5):1884-1890. doi: 10.1007/s00330-017-5160-x. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Imaging putative foetal cerebral blood oxygenation using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI).

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4201 St. Antoine, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University College of Engineering, Detroit, MI, USA.
3
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
4
Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS, Hutzel Women's Hospital, 3990 John R, 4 Brush, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.
6
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
7
Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS, Hutzel Women's Hospital, 3990 John R, 4 Brush, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA. prbchiefstaff@med.wayne.edu.
8
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. prbchiefstaff@med.wayne.edu.
9
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. prbchiefstaff@med.wayne.edu.
10
Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA. prbchiefstaff@med.wayne.edu.
11
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4201 St. Antoine, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA. jneelava@med.wayne.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the magnetic susceptibility, ∆χ v , as a surrogate marker of venous blood oxygen saturation, S v O 2, in second- and third-trimester normal human foetuses.

METHODS:

Thirty-six pregnant women, having a mean gestational age (GA) of 31 2/7 weeks, underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) data from the foetal brain were acquired. ∆χ v of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) was quantified using MR susceptometry from the intra-vascular phase measurements. Assuming the magnetic property of foetal blood, ∆χ do , is the same as that of adult blood, S v O 2 was derived from the measured Δχ v . The variation of ∆χ v and S v O 2, as a function of GA, was statistically evaluated.

RESULTS:

The mean ∆χ v in the SSS in the second-trimester (n = 8) and third-trimester foetuses (n = 28) was found to be 0.34± 0.06 ppm and 0.49 ±0.05 ppm, respectively. Correspondingly, the derived S v O 2 values were 69.4% ±3.27% and 62.6% ±3.25%. Although not statistically significant, an increasing trend (p = 0.08) in Δχ v and a decreasing trend (p = 0.22) in S v O 2 with respect to advancing gestation was observed.

CONCLUSION:

We report cerebral venous blood magnetic susceptibility and putative oxygen saturation in healthy human foetuses. Cerebral oxygen saturation in healthy human foetuses, despite a slight decreasing trend, does not change significantly with advancing gestation.

KEY POINTS:

• Cerebral venous magnetic susceptibility and oxygenation in human foetuses can be quantified. • Cerebral venous oxygenation was not different between second- and third-trimester foetuses. • Foetal cerebral venous oxygenation does not change significantly with advancing gestation.

KEYWORDS:

Brain; Foetal; Oxygen saturation; Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI); Susceptometry

PMID:
29247352
PMCID:
PMC5884705
[Available on 2019-05-01]
DOI:
10.1007/s00330-017-5160-x
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11.
Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 Apr;47:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2017.11.005. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

An interleaved sequence for simultaneous magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).

Author information

1
Sino-Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China; The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, USA; Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.
2
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, USA.
3
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
4
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, USA; Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.
5
Sino-Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
6
Sino-Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China; The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, USA; Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: nmrimaging@aol.com.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To image the entire vasculature of the brain with complete suppression of signal from background tissue using a single 3D excitation interleaved rephased/dephased multi-echo gradient echo sequence. This ensures no loss of signal from fast flow and provides co-registered susceptibility weighted images (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM) from the same scan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The suppression of background tissue was accomplished by subtracting the flow-dephased images from the flow-rephased images with the same echo time of 12.5ms to generate a magnetic resonance angiogram and venogram (MRAV). Further, a 2.5ms flow-compensated echo was added in the rephased portion to provide sufficient signal for major arteries with fast flow. The QSM data from the rephased 12.5ms echo was used to suppress veins on the MRAV to generate an artery-only MRA. The proposed approach was tested on five healthy volunteers at 3T.

RESULTS:

This three-echo interleaved GRE sequence provided complete background suppression of stationary tissues, while the short echo data gave high signal in the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries (MCA). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the arteries was significantly improved in the M3 territory of the MCA compared to the non-linear subtraction MRA and TOF-MRA. Veins were suppressed successfully utilizing the QSM data.

CONCLUSION:

The background tissue can be properly suppressed using the proposed interleaved MRAV sequence. One can obtain whole brain MRAV, MRA, SWI, true-SWI (or tSWI) and QSM data simultaneously from a single scan.

KEYWORDS:

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA); Magnetic resonance angiography and venography (MRAV); Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM); Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)

12.
Brain Res. 2018 Jan 1;1678:337-355. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2017.10.013. Epub 2017 Oct 21.

Normal macromolecular clearance out of the ventricles is delayed in hydrocephalus.

Author information

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA. Electronic address: krishnsa@upstate.edu.
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.
3
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
4
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.
5
Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859, USA.

KEYWORDS:

Blood brain barrier; Cerebrospinal fluid; Hydrocephalus; Macromolecular clearance; Osmolarity; Quantitative susceptibility mapping

13.
Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 Feb;46:140-150. doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2017.10.006. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

STrategically Acquired Gradient Echo (STAGE) imaging, part II: Correcting for RF inhomogeneities in estimating T1 and proton density.

Author information

1
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
2
Sino-Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China; The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, USA; Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
4
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, USA; Magnetic Resonance Innovations, Inc., Detroit, MI 48202, USA.
5
Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, China.
6
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China; Sino-Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China; The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, USA; Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA; Magnetic Resonance Innovations, Inc., Detroit, MI 48202, USA. Electronic address: nmrimaging@aol.com.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To develop a method for mapping the B1 transmit (B1t) and B1 receive (B1r) fields from two gradient echo datasets each with a different flip angle and from these two images obtain accurate T1 and proton density (PD) maps of the brain.

METHODS:

A strategically acquired gradient echo (STAGE) data set is collected using two flip angles each with multiple echoes. The B1t field extraction was based on forcing cortical gray matter and white matter to have specific T1 values and fitting the resulting B1t field to a quadratic function. The B1r field extraction was based on synthesizing isointense images despite there being two or three tissue types present in the brain. This method was tested on 10 healthy volunteers and 20 stroke patients from data acquired at 3.0Tesla.

RESULTS:

With the knowledge of the B1t and B1r fields, the uniformity of tissue T1 and PD maps was considerably improved. T1 values were measured for both the midbrain and basal ganglia and found to be in good agreement with the literature.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:

STAGE provides a practical way to assess the B1t and the B1r fields which can then be used to correct for spatial variations in the images.

KEYWORDS:

B(1) mapping; Proton density mapping; Quantitative MRI (qMRI); Receive coil sensitivity; T(1) mapping; Transmit coil sensitivity

PMID:
29061370
DOI:
10.1016/j.mri.2017.10.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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14.
Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 Feb;46:130-139. doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2017.10.005. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

STrategically Acquired Gradient Echo (STAGE) imaging, part I: Creating enhanced T1 contrast and standardized susceptibility weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping.

Author information

1
Sino-Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China; The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, USA; Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.
2
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, USA.
3
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
4
Sino-Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
5
Sino-Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China; The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, USA; Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address: nmrimaging@aol.com.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To provide whole brain grey matter (GM) to white matter (WM) contrast enhanced T1W (T1WE) images, multi-echo quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), proton density (PD) weighted images, T1 maps, PD maps, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), and R2* maps with minimal misregistration in scanning times <5min.

METHODS:

Strategically acquired gradient echo (STAGE) imaging includes two fully flow compensated double echo gradient echo acquisitions with a resolution of 0.67×1.33×2.0mm3 acquired in 5min for 64 slices. Ten subjects were recruited and scanned at 3 Tesla. The optimum pair of flip angles (6° and 24° with TR=25ms at 3T) were used for both T1 mapping with radio frequency (RF) transmit field correction and creating enhanced GM/WM contrast (the T1WE). The proposed T1WE image was created from a combination of the proton density weighted (6°, PDW) and T1W (24°) images and corrected for RF transmit field variations. Prior to the QSM calculation, a multi-echo phase unwrapping strategy was implemented using the unwrapped short echo to unwrap the longer echo to speed up computation. R2* maps were used to mask deep grey matter and veins during the iterative QSM calculation. A weighted-average sum of susceptibility maps was generated to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR).

RESULTS:

The proposed T1WE image has a significantly improved CNR both for WM to deep GM and WM to cortical GM compared to the acquired T1W image (the first echo of 24° scan) and the T1MPRAGE image. The weighted-average susceptibility maps have 80±26%, 55±22%, 108±33% SNR increases across the ten subjects compared to the single echo result of 17.5ms for the putamen, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

STAGE imaging offers the potential to create a standardized brain imaging protocol providing four pieces of quantitative tissue property information and multiple types of qualitative information in just 5min.

KEYWORDS:

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM); Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI); T1 mapping; T1 weighted (T1W) imaging

PMID:
29056394
DOI:
10.1016/j.mri.2017.10.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
15.
J Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 Mar;47(3):621-633. doi: 10.1002/jmri.25809. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Susceptibility weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping of the cerebral vasculature using ferumoxytol.

Author information

1
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
2
Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.
3
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To demonstrate the potential of imaging cerebral arteries and veins with ferumoxytol using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The relationships between ferumoxytol concentration and the apparent susceptibility at 1.5T, 3T, and 7T were determined using phantom data; the ability of visualizing subvoxel vessels was evaluated using simulations; and the feasibility of using ferumoxytol to enhance the visibility of small vessels was confirmed in three healthy volunteers at 7T(with doses 1 mg/kg to 4 mg/kg). The visualization of the lenticulostriate arteries and the medullary veins was assessed by two raters and the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of these vessels were measured.

RESULTS:

The relationship between ferumoxytol concentration and susceptibility was linear with a slope 13.3 ± 0.2 ppm·mg-1 ·mL at 7T. Simulations showed that SWI data with an increased dose of ferumoxytol, higher echo time (TE), and higher imaging resolution improved the detection of smaller vessels. With 4 mg/kg ferumoxytol, voxel aspect ratio = 1:8, TE = 10 ms, the diameter of the smallest detectable artery was approximately 50μm. The rating score for arteries was improved from 1.5 ± 0.5 (precontrast) to 3.0 ± 0.0 (post-4 mg/kg) in the in vivo data and the apparent susceptibilities of the arteries (0.65 ± 0.02 ppm at 4 mg/kg) agreed well with the expected susceptibility (0.71 ± 0.05 ppm).

CONCLUSION:

The CNR for cerebral vessels with ferumoxytol can be enhanced using SWI, and the apparent susceptibilities of the arteries can be reliably quantified using QSM. This approach improves the imaging of the entire vascular system outside the capillaries and may be valuable for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases which involve the microvasculature.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:621-633.

KEYWORDS:

ferumoxytol; imaging cerebral vasculature; quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM); susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI); ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)

16.
Chemistry. 2017 Nov 2;23(61):15404-15414. doi: 10.1002/chem.201702158. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Structural Features of Europium(II)-Containing Cryptates That Influence Relaxivity.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.
2
Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Universitâ del Piemonte Orientale "Amedeo Avogadro", Viale T. Michel 11, 15121, Alessandria, Italy.
3
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3990 John R Street, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.
4
Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, 4100 John R Street, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.
5
Lumigen Instrument Center, Chemistry Department, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.

Abstract

EuII -containing complexes were studied with respect to properties relevant to their use as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The influences of molecular parameters and field strength on relaxivity were studied for a series of EuII -containing cryptates and their adducts with β-cyclodextrins, poly-β-cyclodextrins, and human serum albumin. Solid- and solution-phase characterization of EuII -containing complexes is presented that demonstrates the presence of inner-sphere molecules of water. Additionally, relaxivity, water-exchange rate, rotational correlation time, and electronic relaxation times were determined using variable-temperature 17 O NMR, nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. These results are expected to be instrumental in the design of future EuII -based contrast agents.

KEYWORDS:

cryptands; cyclodextrins; europium; lanthanides; magnetic resonance imaging

PMID:
28707809
PMCID:
PMC5668193
[Available on 2018-11-02]
DOI:
10.1002/chem.201702158
17.
FASEB J. 2017 Sep;31(9):4179-4186. doi: 10.1096/fj.201700229R. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

In vivo imaging of prodromal hippocampus CA1 subfield oxidative stress in models of Alzheimer disease and Angelman syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; baberko@med.wayne.edu.
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
3
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
4
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
5
Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
6
Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
7
Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Molecular Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
8
Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

Hippocampus oxidative stress is considered pathogenic in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), and in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Angelman syndrome (AS). Yet clinical benefits of antioxidant treatment for these diseases remain unclear because conventional imaging methods are unable to guide management of therapies in specific hippocampus subfields in vivo that underlie abnormal behavior. Excessive production of paramagnetic free radicals in nonhippocampus brain tissue can be measured in vivo as a greater-than-normal 1/T1 that is quenchable with antioxidant as measured by quench-assisted (Quest) MRI. Here, we further test this approach in phantoms, and we present proof-of-concept data in models of AD-like and AS hippocampus oxidative stress that also exhibit impaired spatial learning and memory. AD-like models showed an abnormal gradient along the CA1 dorsal-ventral axis of excessive free radical production as measured by Quest MRI, and redox-sensitive calcium dysregulation as measured by manganese-enhanced MRI and electrophysiology. In the AS model, abnormally high free radical levels were observed in dorsal and ventral CA1. Quest MRI is a promising in vivo paradigm for bridging brain subfield oxidative stress and behavior in animal models and in human patients to better manage antioxidant therapy in devastating neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases.-Berkowitz, B. A., Lenning, J., Khetarpal, N., Tran, C., Wu, J. Y., Berri, A. M., Dernay, K., Haacke, E. M., Shafie-Khorassani, F., Podolsky, R. H., Gant, J. C., Maimaiti, S., Thibault, O., Murphy, G. G., Bennett, B. M., Roberts, R. In vivo imaging of prodromal hippocampus CA1 subfield oxidative stress in models of Alzheimer disease and Angelman syndrome.

KEYWORDS:

MRI; dorsoventral CA1; neurodegenerative disease; neurodevelopment disorders; reactive oxygen species

PMID:
28592637
DOI:
10.1096/fj.201700229R
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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18.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Aug;38(8):1617-1622. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A5219. Epub 2017 May 25.

Jugular Anomalies in Multiple Sclerosis Are Associated with Increased Collateral Venous Flow.

Author information

1
From The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research (S.K.S., D.T.U., J.J., E.M.H.), Detroit, Michigan sethisea@gmail.com.
2
Institute of Gerontology (A.M.D., N.R.).
3
Department of Physics and Earth Sciences (G.G.), University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
4
From The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research (S.K.S., D.T.U., J.J., E.M.H.), Detroit, Michigan.
5
Departments of Psychology (N.R.).
6
Radiology (E.M.H.), Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

To date, research on extracranial venous collaterals has been focused on structure, with relatively little attention paid to hemodynamics. We addressed this limitation by quantitatively comparing collateral flow in patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls by using phase-contrast MR imaging. We hypothesize that patients with MS with structurally anomalous internal jugular veins will have elevated collateral venous flow compared with healthy controls.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The sample consisted of 276 patients with MS and 106 healthy controls. We used MRV to classify internal jugular veins as stenotic and nonstenotic based on an absolute cross-sectional area threshold in 276 patients with MS and 60 healthy controls; 46 healthy controls lacked this imaging. Individual and total vessel flows were quantified by using phase-contrast MR imaging on all patients. Veins were classified by extracranial drainage type: internal jugular veins (I), paraspinal (II), and superficial (III). Differences among healthy controls, patients with MS, nonstenotic patients, and stenotic subgroups in total venous flow by vessel type were evaluated in a general linear model for statistical analysis.

RESULTS:

In the MS group, 153 patients (55%) evidenced stenosis, whereas 12 (20%) healthy controls were classified as stenotic (P < .001). Compared with healthy controls, the MS group showed lower type I flow and increased type II flow. Stenosis was associated with reduced flow in the type I vessels [F(1272) = 68; P < .001]. The stenotic MS group had increased flow in the type II vessels compared with the nonstenotic MS group [F(1272) = 67; P < .001].

CONCLUSIONS:

Compared with healthy controls, patients with MS exhibit reduced venous flow in the main extracerebral drainage vein (internal jugular vein). In contrast, flow in the paraspinal venous collaterals is elevated in patients with MS and exacerbated by venous stenosis. Collateral drainage may be a compensatory response to internal jugular vein flow reduction.

PMID:
28546249
PMCID:
PMC5557656
DOI:
10.3174/ajnr.A5219
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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19.
Neuroradiol J. 2017 Apr;30(2):109-119. doi: 10.1177/1971400917690166. Epub 2017 Jan 1.

Susceptibility weighted imaging in acute cerebral ischemia: review of emerging technical concepts and clinical applications.

Author information

1
1 Department of Medical Imaging, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Australia.
2
2 Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
3
3 Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, USA.

Abstract

Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is an essential magnetic resonance imaging sequence in the assessment of acute ischemic stroke. In this article, we discuss the physics principals and clinical application of conventional SWI and multi-echo SWI sequences. We review the research evidence and practical approach of SWI in acute ischemic stroke by focusing on the detection and characterization of thromboembolism in the cerebral circulation. In addition, we discuss the role of SWI in the assessment of neuroparenchyma by depiction of asymmetric hypointense cortical veins in the ischemic territory (surrogate tissue perfusion), detection of existing microbleeds before stroke treatment and monitoring for hemorrhagic transformation post-treatment. In conclusion, the SWI sequence complements other parameters in the stroke magnetic resonance imaging protocol and understanding of the research evidence is vital for practising stroke neurologists and neuroradiologists.

KEYWORDS:

Magnetic resonance imaging; acute stroke; susceptibility weighted imaging

PMID:
28424015
PMCID:
PMC5433592
DOI:
10.1177/1971400917690166
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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20.
ACS Omega. 2017 Mar 31;2(3):800-805. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.6b00514. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Oxidation-Responsive, EuII/III-Based, Multimodal Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance and Photoacoustic Imaging.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University , 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, Michigan 48202, United States.
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University , 818 W. Hancock, Detroit, Michigan 48201, United States.
3
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University , Detroit, Michigan 48201, United States.
4
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, United States; Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, Michigan 48201, United States.
5
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, 818 W. Hancock, Detroit, Michigan 48201, United States; Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, Michigan 48201, United States.
6
Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, Michigan 48202, United States; Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, Michigan 48201, United States.

Abstract

We report, for the first time, a multimodal, oxidation-responsive contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging and photoacoustic imaging that uses the differences in the properties between Eu in the +2 and +3 oxidation states. The enhancement of contrast in T1-weighted magnetic resonance and photoacoustic imaging was observed in the +2 but not in the +3 oxidation state, and the complex is a known chemical exchange saturation transfer agent for magnetic resonance imaging in the +3 oxidation state.

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