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Int Rev Neurobiol. 2017;134:1163-1188. doi: 10.1016/bs.irn.2017.05.037. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Exercise in Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

Author information

1
UCLA/West LA VA, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address: ISubramanian@mednet.ucla.edu.

Abstract

The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy in nonmotor symptoms (NMS) for Parkinson disease (PD) is growing worldwide. Well-performed, systematic evidence-based research is largely lacking in this area and many studies include various forms of CAM with small patient numbers and a lack of standardization of the approaches studied. Taichi, Qigong, dance, yoga, mindfulness, acupuncture, and other CAM therapies are reviewed and there is some evidence for the following: Taichi in sleep and PDQ39; dance in cognition, apathy, and a mild trend to improved fatigue; yoga in PDQ39; and acupuncture in depression, PDQ39, and sleep. Exercise including occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) has been studied in motor symptoms of PD and balance but only with small studies with a mounting evidence base for use of exercise in NMS of PD including PDQ39, sleep, fatigue, depression, and some subsets of cognition. Studies of OT and PT largely show some benefit to depression, apathy, and anxiety. Sustainability of an improvement has not been shown given short duration of follow up. Finding optimal control groups and blind for these interventions is also an issue. This is a very important area of study since patients want to be self-empowered and they want guidance on which form of exercise is the best. Additionally, evidence for PT and OT in NMS would give added weight to get these interventions covered through medical insurance.

KEYWORDS:

Acupuncture; CAM; Dance; Exercise; Occupational therapy; Physical therapy; Taichi; Yoga

PMID:
28805568
DOI:
10.1016/bs.irn.2017.05.037
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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