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Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2011;205:51-75. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-20195-0_2.

Developmental pharmacokinetics.

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Division of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's National Medical Center, NW, Washington, DC 20010, USA.


The advances in developmental pharmacokinetics during the past decade reside with an enhanced understanding of the influence of growth and development on drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). However, significant information gaps remain with respect to our ability to characterize the impact of ontogeny on the activity of important drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and other targets. The ultimate goal of rational drug therapy in neonates, infants, children, and adolescents resides with the ability to individualize it based on known developmental differences in drug disposition and action. The clinical challenge in achieving this is accounting for the variability in all of the contravening factors that influence pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (e.g., genetic variants of ADME genes, different disease phenotypes, disease progression, and concomitant treatment). Application of novel technologies in the fields of pharmacometrics (e.g., in silico simulation of exposure-response relationships; disease progression modeling), pharmacogenomics and biomarker development (e.g., creation of pharmacodynamic surrogate endpoints suitable for pediatric use) are increasingly making integrated approaches for developmentally appropriate dose regimen selection possible.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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