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Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2018 Nov 15;6(11):2062-2066. doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2018.449. eCollection 2018 Nov 25.

The Comparison of Simple Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters for Predicting Liver Steatosis in Obese Balinese Young Women.

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Department of Public Health, Preventive Medicine, and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia.
Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia.
Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia.
Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia.
Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Sanglah General Hospital, Bali, Indonesia.



The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing globally. Early identification of liver steatosis (LS) status is critical to prevent the development of NAFLD into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) fibrosis.


This study aimed at exploring the validity of simple anthropometric and biochemical parameters to predict LS in young obese women.


This is a cross-sectional study involving 132 young obese women. We collected the data of measured waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), serum triglyceride (TG), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The lipid accumulation product (LAP) was designed from TG and WC variables. Fatty liver index (FLI) was calculated from TG, BMI, WC, and GGT variables. LS status was measured using ultrasonography assay. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.


A positive correlation was found between BMI, WC, TG, GGT, LAP, FLI, and LS (p = 0.001). We found that BMI is a better predictor for LS to WC. Our multiple linear regression analysis revealed that BMI, GGT, and TG could predict 41.4% of LS. The validity (specificity, sensitivity, and odds ratio) of simple body fat parameters in predicting LS were as follows: BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (69.6%, 74.4%, and 6.21), WC ≥ 90 cm (67.4%, 70.0%, and 4.28), TG ≥ 100 mg/dL (70.6%, 70.0%, and 5.62) and GGT ≥ 20 μg/L (69.6%, 77.5%, and 7.87), as well as LAP ≥ 30 (82.6%, 70.0%, and 11.1), and FLI ≥ 2.5 (79.3%, 72.5%, and 10.1), significantly.


Simple anthropometric and biochemical parameters (BMI, WC, and TG, GGT), are appropriately predicting LS as well as LAP, and FLI among obese Balinese young women.


Body mass index; Gamma-glutamyltransferase; Liver steatosis; Triglyceride; Waist circumference

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