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Diabet Med. 2004 Sep;21(9):968-75.

Effect of acute hyperglycaemia on sodium handling and excretion of nitric oxide metabolites, bradykinin, and cGMP in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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1
Diabetes Center, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, the Czech Republic. renata.simkova@medicon.cz

Abstract

AIMS:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acutely induced hyperglycaemia on renal sodium handling and to explore the role of the bradykinin-nitric oxide-cGMP signalling pathway.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

We compared 20 Type 1 diabetic (DM1) patients without microalbuminuria with 15 weight-, age-, and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Clearances of para-aminohippuric acid (CPAH), inulin (Cin), lithium, sodium, and urinary nitrite/nitrate (NOx), cGMP and bradykinin excretion rates were measured in two 90-min periods: a glycaemic clamp-induced euglycaemia (5 mmol/l-period I) and hyperglycaemia (12 mmol/l-period II) (Study 1) and during time-controlled euglycaemia (5 mmol/l-period I and 5 mmol/l-period II) to avoid the effects of time and volume load (Study 2).

RESULTS:

Cin and CPAH were not significantly different during euglycaemia (period I of Study 1) in DM1 and controls, whereas fractional excretion of sodium was decreased in DM1 (1.84 +/- 0.75 vs. 2.36 +/- 0.67%; P < 0.05) due to an increase in fractional distal tubular reabsorption of sodium (94.01 +/- 1.94 vs. 92.24 +/- 2.47%; P < 0.05). A comparison of changes during Study 1 and Study 2 revealed acute hyperglycaemia did not change renal haemodynamics significantly, while fractional distal tubular reabsorption of sodium increased (DM1: P < 0.05; C: P < 0.01) and fractional excretion of sodium decreased (P < 0.01) in both groups. The urinary excretion rates of NOx were comparable during euglycaemia in DM1 and C. While in C, they significantly increased during Study 1 (period I: 382 +/- 217 vs. period II: 515 +/- 254 nmol/min; P < 0.01) and Study 2 (period I: 202.9 +/- 176.8 vs. period II: 297.2 +/- 267.5 nmol/min; P < 0.05) as a consequence of the water load, no changes were found in DM1. The urinary excretion of bradykinin was lower in DM1 compared with C (0.84 +/- 0.68 vs. 1.20 +/- 0.85 micro g/min; P < 0.01) during euglycaemia; it was not affected by hyperglycaemia. There were no significant differences between DM1 and C and in cGMP urinary excretion rates following hyperglycaemia.

CONCLUSION:

This study demonstrates that DM1 without renal haemodynamic alterations is associated with impaired renal sodium handling. Moreover, we did not find a relationship between the renal excretion rates of vasoactive mediators and sodium handling due to hyperglycaemia.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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