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J Bacteriol. 1999 Nov;181(22):6996-7004.

Role of CcpA in regulation of the central pathways of carbon catabolism in Bacillus subtilis.

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Institut für Mikrobiologie und Molekularbiologie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany.


The Bacillus subtilis two-dimensional (2D) protein index contains almost all glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, among them the most abundant housekeeping proteins of growing cells. Therefore, a comprehensive study on the regulation of glycolysis and the TCA cycle was initiated. Whereas expression of genes encoding the upper and lower parts of glycolysis (pgi, pfk, fbaA, and pykA) is not affected by the glucose supply, there is an activation of the glycolytic gap gene and the pgk operon by glucose. This activation seems to be dependent on the global regulator CcpA, as shown by 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis as well as by transcriptional analysis. Furthermore, a high glucose concentration stimulates production and excretion of organic acids (overflow metabolism) in the wild type but not in the ccpA mutant. Finally, CcpA is involved in strong glucose repression of almost all TCA cycle genes. In addition to TCA cycle and glycolytic enzymes, the levels of many other proteins are affected by the ccpA mutation. Our data suggest (i) that ccpA mutants are unable to activate glycolysis or carbon overflow metabolism and (ii) that CcpA might be a key regulator molecule, controlling a superregulon of glucose catabolism.

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