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J Am Coll Cardiol. 1984 Jan;3(1):169-78.

Clinical utility of two-dimensional doppler echocardiographic techniques for estimating pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratios in children with left to right shunting atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus.


Range gated two-dimensional Doppler echocardiographic methods were evaluated for quantifying pulmonary (QP) to systemic (QS) blood flow ratios. Twenty-one patients were studied, 4 with patent ductus arteriosus, 6 with atrial septal defect and 11 with ventricular septal defect. The Doppler pulmonary to systemic flow (QP:QS) estimation method involved calculating volume flow (liters/min) at a variety of intracardiac sites by using imaging information for flow area and Doppler outputs to calculate mean flow velocity as a function of time. Area volume flows were combined to yield QP:QS ratios. The sites sampled were main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta, mitral valve orifice and subpulmonary right ventricular outflow tract. The overall correlation between Doppler QP:QS estimates and those obtained at cardiac catheterization (n = 18) or radionuclide angiography (n = 3) was r = 0.85 (standard error of the estimate = 0.48:1). These preliminary results suggest that clinical application of this Doppler echocardiographic method should allow noninvasive estimation of the magnitude of cardiac shunts.

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