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Items: 6


Urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride, but not iodine, varies by timing of collection in a 24-hour calibration study.

Wang CY, Cogswell ME, Loria CM, Chen TC, Pfeiffer CM, Swanson CA, Caldwell KL, Perrine CG, Carriquiry AL, Liu K, Sempos CT, Gillespie CD, Burt VL.

J Nutr. 2013 Aug;143(8):1276-82. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.175927.


Systematic review of studies comparing 24-hour and spot urine collections for estimating population salt intake.

Ji C, Sykes L, Paul C, Dary O, Legetic B, Campbell NR, Cappuccio FP; Sub-Group for Research and Surveillance of the PAHO–WHO Regional Expert Group for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Through Population-wide Dietary Salt Reduction..

Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2012 Oct;32(4):307-15. Review.


Use of Urine Biomarkers to Assess Sodium Intake: Challenges and Opportunities.

Cogswell ME, Maalouf J, Elliott P, Loria CM, Patel S, Bowman BA.

Annu Rev Nutr. 2015;35:349-87. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071714-034322. Review.


Fasting and postprandial spot urine calcium-to-creatinine ratios do not detect hypercalciuria.

Jones AN, Shafer MM, Keuler NS, Crone EM, Hansen KE.

Osteoporos Int. 2012 Feb;23(2):553-62. doi: 10.1007/s00198-011-1580-7. Review.


Mean population salt intake estimated from 24-h urine samples and spot urine samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Huang L, Crino M, Wu JH, Woodward M, Barzi F, Land MA, McLean R, Webster J, Enkhtungalag B, Neal B.

Int J Epidemiol. 2016 Feb;45(1):239-50. Review.

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