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J Child Neurol. 2014 Jul;29(7):965-8. doi: 10.1177/0883073813479999. Epub 2013 Mar 12.

The application and efficacy of combined neurofeedback therapy and imagery training in adolescents with Tourette syndrome.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Tianjin Anning Hospital, Dongli District, Tianjin, China.
  • 2Institute of Mental Health, Peking University (Sixth Hospital, Peking University), Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, Beijing , China


We aimed to examine the effectiveness of combined neurofeedback therapy and imagery training in adolescent patients with refractory Tourette syndrome. Two patients, aged respectively 14 and 16 years, had been treated with haloperidol and tiapride; however, this medication was ineffective and accompanied by intolerable side effects. In this study, the patients completed 80 sessions of neurofeedback treatment followed by imagery training. The patients were assessed with behavior rating scales both before and after the treatment as well as during follow-up examinations to evaluate the effect of the combined therapy. Patients showed significant improvement in motor tic and vocal tic symptoms, exemplified by a reduction in the frequency and intensity of tics, indicating that neurofeedback, together with imagery training, has a positive therapeutic effect on adolescent patients with medication-refractory Tourette syndrome.

© The Author(s) 2013.


Tourette syndrome; imagery training; neurofeedback therapy

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