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Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2013 Sep-Oct;9(5):802-8. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2012.09.011. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Relationships among tonic and episodic aspects of motivation to eat, gut peptides, and weight before and after bariatric surgery.

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Division of Psychology, University of Bradford, Bradford, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Electronic address:



The interaction between motivation to eat, eating behavior traits, and gut peptides after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is not fully understood.


Appetite and hormone responses to a fixed liquid preload were assessed in 12 obese (body mass index 45 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)) participants immediately before and 3 days, 2 months, and 1 year after RYGB surgery. Subjective appetite and plasma levels of ghrelin, leptin, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured for a 3-hour postprandial period. Eating behavior traits were also measured using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire 18 (TFEQR18).


There was a decrease in TFEQR18 emotional eating (EE) and uncontrolled eating (UE) from presurgery to 1 year postsurgery but no significant change in cognitive restraint (CR). These changes occurred independently of change in weight. In addition, there was a reduction in subjective appetite ratings and alterations in appetite peptides favoring an anorectic response. Presurgery EE was significantly related to fasting and area under the curve (AUC) ghrelin; UE was associated with AUC desire to eat, and there was a significant association between fasting desire to eat and ghrelin (fasting and AUC). One year postsurgery, UE was positively related to fasting insulin, and CR was negatively associated with GLP-1. UE and subjective hunger were positively correlated, while the relationship between desire to eat and ghrelin remained.


The relationships among subjective appetite ratings, eating behavior traits, and appetite peptides in obese patients both before and at 1 year after RYGB surgery may contribute to the reduction in a propensity to overeat (as measured by TFEQR18 factors) and weight loss.


Appetite peptides; Eating behavior; Gastric bypass surgery; TFEQR18; Weight loss

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