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AIDS. 2012 Jan 14;26(2):235-40. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834dc5fc.

Lipid levels in the second year of life among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected Latin American children.

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Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS Branch, CRMC-NICHD-NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510, USA.



Dyslipidemia is observed among older children and adults with HIV. We examined nonfasting cholesterol and triglycerides in two groups of 12-23-month-old Latin American children - HIV-infected vs. HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU).


HIV-infected and HEU children in Latin America and Jamaica were enrolled in an observational cohort. Eligibility for this analysis required having cholesterol and triglyceride results available during the second year of life.


HIV-infected (n = 83) children were slightly older at the time of lipid testing than the HEU (n = 681). Forty percent of the HIV-infected children were on protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy (ART); 41% were not on ART. There was no statistically significant difference in mean cholesterol concentrations (mg/dl) by HIV status; however, the HIV-infected children had higher mean triglyceride concentrations. The prevalence of high cholesterol (>200  mg/dl) and high triglycerides (>110 mg/dl) was higher among the HIV-infected vs. HEU. Among the HIV-infected children, mean cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations varied by ART. Children receiving no ART had a significantly lower mean cholesterol concentration. Those receiving protease inhibitor-containing ART had a significantly higher mean triglyceride concentration compared to the other two antiretroviral regimen groups.


A greater proportion of HIV-infected children at 12-23 months have hyperlipidemia when compared to HEU children, with the highest triglyceride concentrations observed among those receiving protease inhibitor-containing ART, and the lowest cholesterol levels among those not receiving ART. Implications of these findings will require continued follow-up of HIV-infected children who initiate therapy early in life.

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