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J Photochem Photobiol A Chem. 2009 Aug 15;206(2-3):188-197.

Solvent effect on two-photon absorption and fluorescence of rhodamine dyes.

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Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Sl-216, Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh, India.


For a series of rhodamine dyes, two-photon absorption (TPA) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) have been performed in different solvents. Solvent-dependent TPA spectra of these dyes were measured with open aperture z-scan method and compared to their respective single-photon spectra at equivalent energies. In the TPA spectra, relative peak intensities and positions are highly solvent dependent, which could be a result of vibronic couplings that depend on solvent environment. Measured TPA cross-sections of rhodamine dyes are consistently higher in nonpolar solvents. Certain complementary and similarity between TPA and TPF are also elucidated. Finally, a two-photon figure-of-merit is presented for these dyes in different solvents as a function of wavelength.

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