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Annu Rev Med. 2010;61:169-85. doi: 10.1146/annurev.med.050108.151127.

Growing up with HIV: children, adolescents, and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV infection.

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  • 1Pediatric, Adolescent and Maternal AIDS Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Center for Research for Mothers and Children, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA. hazrar@mail.nih.gov

Abstract

Tremendous success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high-resource countries has changed the face of the epidemic. A perinatally HIV-infected child now faces a chronic disease rather than a progressive, fatal one. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. These include maintaining adherence to long-term, likely life-long therapy; selecting successive antiretroviral drug regimens, given the limited availability of pediatric formulations and the lack of pharmacokinetic and safety data in children; and overcoming extensive drug resistance in multi-drug-experienced children. Pediatric HIV care now focuses on morbidity related to long-term HIV infection and its treatment. Survival into adulthood of perinatally HIV-infected youth in high-resource countries encourages expansion of pediatric treatment programs in low-resource countries, where most HIV-infected children live, and provides important lessons about how the epidemic changes with increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children.

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