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Opt Express. 2006 Dec 11;14(25):12096-108.

Three-dimensional identification of biological microorganism using integral imaging.


In this paper, we address the identification of biological microorganisms using microscopic integral imaging (II). II senses multi-view directional information of 3D objects illuminated by incoherent light. A micro-lenslet array generates a set of elemental images by projecting a 3D scene onto a detector array. In computational reconstruction of II, 3D volumetric scenes are numerically reconstructed by means of a geometrical ray projection method. The identification of the biological samples is performed using the 3D volume of the reconstructed object. In one approach, the multivariate statistical distribution of the reference sample is measured in 3D space and compared with an unknown input sample by means of statistical discriminant functions. The multivariate empirical cumulative density of the 3D volume image is determined for classification. On the other approach, the graph matching technique is applied to 3D volumetric images with Gabor feature extraction. The reference morphology is identified in unknown input samples using 3D grids. Experimental results are presented for the identification of sphacelaria alga and tribonema aequale alga. We present experimental results for both 3D and 2D imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D identification of microorganisms using II.

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