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Opt Express. 2006 Jul 24;14(15):6766-77.

Negative refraction and flat-lens focusing in a 2D square-lattice photonic crystal at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies.


We report on a study of the wave propagation and refraction in a 2D square-lattice photonic crystal for the first two photonic bands as well as the coupling of the external waves and criteria for flat-lens focusing. Microwave experiments and numerical simulations are performed. Main results concern the transition from positive to negative refraction below the first band gap, the flat-lens focusing using a novel criterion, viz. the constancy of the ratio of the tangents of the incident and refracted angle. Focusing results for medium ( approximately 10) and ultra-large dielectric contrast ( approximately 100) are presented. In the latter case focusing with a spot size below one wavelength at distances several wavelengths behind the photonic crystal is achieved.

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