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Opt Express. 2008 Dec 22;16(26):21282-96.

Modeling thermal effects and polarization competition in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

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Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain.


We analyze the influence of thermal effects on the polarization-resolved light-current (LI) characteristics of verticalcavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). We use a model that is an extension of the spin-flip model incorporating material gain that is frequency and temperature dependent, and a rate equation for the temperature of the active region, which takes into account decay to a fixed substrate temperature, Joule heating and nonradiative recombination heating. The model also incorporates the red shift for increasing temperature of the gain curve and of the cavity resonance. The temperature sensitivity of the lasing threshold current is found to be in good qualitative agreement with observations and with previous reports based on detailed microscopic models. The temperature dependence of the polarization switching point, when the dominant polarization turn off and the orthogonal polarization emerges, is characterized in terms of various model parameters, such as the room-temperature gain-cavity offset, the subtracte temperature, and the size of the active region.

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