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Opt Lett. 2008 Oct 1;33(19):2167-9.

Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation.

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  • 1State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, China.


Ultraviolet upconversion emissions of 246.2 and 252.8 nm from (6)D(J) levels of Gd(3+) ions were observed in GdF(3): 10% Yb(3+), 0.7% Tm(3+) nanocrystals under 980 nm excitation from a laser diode. The (6)D(J) levels of Gd(3+) ions can be efficiently populated by energy transfer processes of Yb-->Tm-->Gd and Yb-->Gd. A six-photon upconversion process was confirmed by the dependence of 252.8 nm emission intensity on the pumping power. The upconversion mechanism in the six-photon process was discussed based on excited state absorption of Gd(3+) ions, cross relaxation energy transfer between two excited Gd(3+) ions, and energy transfer between Gd(3+) and Yb(3+) or Tm(3+) ions.

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