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J Biol Chem. 2008 Sep 5;283(36):24382-91. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M802198200. Epub 2008 Jul 9.

Functional and structural profiling of the human thrombopoietin gene promoter.

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Leibniz-Institute for Arteriosclerosis Research, Department of Molecular Genetics of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Münster, Münster D-48149, Germany.


Human thrombopoietin (TPO) is involved in cardiovascular disease as it regulates megakaryocyte development and enhances platelet adhesion/aggregation. The THPO promoter structure is still controversial. By reverse transcription-PCR, we confirm that THPO transcription is cell line-dependently initiated at two alternative promoters, which we newly designated P1a and P1. We subsequently electrophoretically scanned and resequenced these portions in 95 and 57 patients with cardiovascular disease, respectively, and identified seven variants (-1450/del58bp, C-920T [rs2855306], A-622G, C-413T [rs885838], C+5A, G+115A, and C+135T). After subcloning of 1032 bp of THPO P1 in pGL3-basic vector, five molecular haplotypes (MolHaps1-5) were observed: [A(-622)-C(-413)-C(+5)-G(+115); wild type (wt)], [A(-622)-T(-413)-C(+5)-G(+115)], [G(-622)-T(-413)-C(+5)-G(+115)], [A(-622)-C(-413)-A(+5)-G(+115)], [A(-622)-C(-413)-C(+5)-A(+115)], and analyzed in reporter gene assays in HEK293T and HepG2 cells. MolHaps 2, 4, and 5 were significantly more active than wt (all p values < or =0.01) in HEK293T cells, MolHap3 exerted a substantial loss of promoter activity (p < 0.0001 in HEK293T and p < 0.01 in HepG2, compared with wt). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that A-622G and C-413T individually differed from MolHaps in their DNA-protein interaction patterns. Supershift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identified CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta as the binding protein exclusively for the -622A allelic portion.

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