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Kidney Int. 2006 Jun;69(11):2064-9.

Cross-sectional relations of serum aldosterone and urine sodium excretion to urinary albumin excretion in a community-based sample.

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  • 1National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA.


Experimental models suggest that increased aldosterone and sodium intake are associated with renovascular damage and resultant proteinuria. We hypothesized that serum aldosterone and urinary sodium would be associated with urinary albumin excretion, an indicator of kidney damage. We evaluated 2700 participants (53% women, mean age 58 years) from the Framingham Offspring Study who attended a routine examination between 1995 and 1998, who were free of heart failure and renal failure, and underwent testing for serum aldosterone, spot urinary sodium, and urinary albumin excretion (urine albumin/creatinine ratio, UACR), the latter two indexed to urinary creatinine. Stepwise multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the relations between UACR with urinary sodium index and serum aldosterone. In multivariable regression, log urinary sodium index was associated positively with log-UACR (P<0.0001). UACR levels in the fourth and fifth quintiles of urinary sodium index were 24% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3-49%), and twofold higher (95% CI 72-150%), respectively, relative to the lowest quintile (P-value for trend across quintiles <0.001). In multivariable models, log-transformed aldosterone was not related to log-UACR. The top quintile of serum aldosterone levels was associated with a 21% higher (95% 1-44%) UACR levels relative to the lowest quintile. Urinary albumin excretion was strongly and positively associated in a continuous fashion with urinary sodium excretion, whereas a weaker nonlinear positive relation with serum aldosterone was noted. Our cross-sectional observations raise the possibility that dietary salt intake may be associated with early renovascular damage.

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