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J Infect Dis. 2003 Aug 1;188(3):397-405. Epub 2003 Jul 10.

Lack of detectable human immunodeficiency virus type 1 superinfection during 1072 person-years of observation.

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1
Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.

Abstract

We examined consecutive protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected individuals, to distinguish changes resulting from sequence evolution due to possible superinfection. Between July 1997 and December 2001, >/=2 PR and RT samples from 718 persons were sequenced at Stanford University Hospital. Thirty-seven persons had highly divergent sequence pairs characterized by a nucleotide distance of >4.5% in PR or >3.0% in RT. In 16 of 37 sequence pairs, divergence resulted from the loss of mutations during a treatment interruption or from the gain of mutations with reinstitution of treatment. tat and/or gag sequencing of HIV-1 from cryopreserved plasma samples could be performed on 15 of the 21 divergent isolate pairs from persons without a treatment interruption. The sequences of these genes, unaffected by selective drug pressure, were monophyletic. Although HIV-1 PR and RT genes from treated persons may become highly divergent, these changes usually are the result of sequence evolution, rather than superinfection.

PMID:
12870121
PMCID:
PMC2547470
DOI:
10.1086/376534
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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