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J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1999 May;81(3):444-8.

Open-wedge osteotomy by hemicallotasis or the closed-wedge technique for osteoarthritis of the knee. A randomised study of 50 operations.

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Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.


We describe the results of 50 operations carried out on 46 patients with medial osteoarthritis of the knee of Ahlb├Ąck grade 1 to 3. Patients were randomised either to a closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) or an open-wedge procedure based on the hemicallotasis technique (HCO). Their median age was 55 years (38 to 68). The preoperative median hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle was 171 degrees (164 to 176) in the HTO group and 173 degrees (165 to 179) in the HCO group. After six weeks, the median HKA angle was 185 degrees (176 to 194) in the HTO group and 184 degrees (181 to 188) in the HCO group. In the HTO group, seven patients were within the range of 182 degrees to 186 degrees compared with 21 in the HCO group (p < 0.001). One year later, ten HTO patients were within this range while the HKA angulation in the HCO group was unchanged. At two years the numbers were 11 and 18, respectively. We evaluated the clinical results on the Hospital for Special Surgery, Lysholm and Wallgren-Tegner activity scores, and patients completed part of the Nottingham Health Profile questionnaire. An impartial observer at the two-year follow-up concluded that all scores had improved, but found no clinical differences between the groups.

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