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Loss of C-5 Sterol Desaturase Activity Results in Increased Resistance to Azole and Echinocandin Antifungals in a Clinical Isolate of Candida parapsilosis.

Rybak JM, Dickens CM, Parker JE, Caudle KE, Manigaba K, Whaley SG, Nishimoto AT, Luna-Tapia A, Roy S, Zhang Q, Barker KS, Palmer GE, Sutter TR, Homayouni R, Wiederhold NP, Kelly SL, Rogers PD.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Aug 24;61(9). pii: e00651-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00651-17. Print 2017 Sep.


Monitoring Antifungal Resistance in a Global Collection of Invasive Yeasts and Molds: Application of CLSI Epidemiological Cutoff Values and Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis for Detection of Azole Resistance in Candida albicans.

Castanheira M, Deshpande LM, Davis AP, Rhomberg PR, Pfaller MA.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Sep 22;61(10). pii: e00906-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00906-17. Print 2017 Oct.


Impact of ERG3 mutations and expression of ergosterol genes controlled by UPC2 and NDT80 in Candida parapsilosis azole resistance.

Branco J, Ola M, Silva RM, Fonseca E, Gomes NC, Martins-Cruz C, Silva AP, Silva-Dias A, Pina-Vaz C, Erraught C, Brennan L, Rodrigues AG, Butler G, Miranda IM.

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017 Aug;23(8):575.e1-575.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.02.002. Epub 2017 Feb 11.


Stepwise emergence of azole, echinocandin and amphotericin B multidrug resistance in vivo in Candida albicans orchestrated by multiple genetic alterations.

Jensen RH, Astvad KM, Silva LV, Sanglard D, Jørgensen R, Nielsen KF, Mathiasen EG, Doroudian G, Perlin DS, Arendrup MC.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 Sep;70(9):2551-5. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkv140. Epub 2015 May 27.


Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

Arendrup MC.

Dan Med J. 2013 Nov;60(11):B4698. Review.


Azole resistance by loss of function of the sterol Δ⁵,⁶-desaturase gene (ERG3) in Candida albicans does not necessarily decrease virulence.

Vale-Silva LA, Coste AT, Ischer F, Parker JE, Kelly SL, Pinto E, Sanglard D.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Apr;56(4):1960-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.05720-11. Epub 2012 Jan 17.


CoERG11 A395T mutation confers azole resistance in Candida orthopsilosis clinical isolates.

Rizzato C, Poma N, Zoppo M, Posteraro B, Mello E, Bottai D, Lupetti A, Sanguinetti M, Tavanti A.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Jul 1;73(7):1815-1822. doi: 10.1093/jac/dky122.


A gain-of-function mutation in the transcription factor Upc2p causes upregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis genes and increased fluconazole resistance in a clinical Candida albicans isolate.

Dunkel N, Liu TT, Barker KS, Homayouni R, Morschhäuser J, Rogers PD.

Eukaryot Cell. 2008 Jul;7(7):1180-90. doi: 10.1128/EC.00103-08. Epub 2008 May 16.


Echinocandin-Induced Microevolution of Candida parapsilosis Influences Virulence and Abiotic Stress Tolerance.

Papp C, Kocsis K, Tóth R, Bodai L, Willis JR, Ksiezopolska E, Lozoya-Pérez NE, Vágvölgyi C, Mora Montes H, Gabaldón T, Nosanchuk JD, Gácser A.

mSphere. 2018 Nov 14;3(6). pii: e00547-18. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00547-18.


A multicentre study of antifungal susceptibility patterns among 350 Candida auris isolates (2009-17) in India: role of the ERG11 and FKS1 genes in azole and echinocandin resistance.

Chowdhary A, Prakash A, Sharma C, Kordalewska M, Kumar A, Sarma S, Tarai B, Singh A, Upadhyaya G, Upadhyay S, Yadav P, Singh PK, Khillan V, Sachdeva N, Perlin DS, Meis JF.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Apr 1;73(4):891-899. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkx480.


Next-generation sequencing offers new insights into the resistance of Candida spp. to echinocandins and azoles.

Garnaud C, Botterel F, Sertour N, Bougnoux ME, Dannaoui E, Larrat S, Hennequin C, Guinea J, Cornet M, Maubon D.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 Sep;70(9):2556-65. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkv139. Epub 2015 May 27.


Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in clinical Candida species isolated from Tunisian hospitals.

Eddouzi J, Parker JE, Vale-Silva LA, Coste A, Ischer F, Kelly S, Manai M, Sanglard D.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Jul;57(7):3182-93. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00555-13. Epub 2013 Apr 29.


Candida albicans mutations in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway and resistance to several antifungal agents.

Sanglard D, Ischer F, Parkinson T, Falconer D, Bille J.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Aug;47(8):2404-12.


Loss of Upc2p-Inducible ERG3 Transcription Is Sufficient To Confer Niche-Specific Azole Resistance without Compromising Candida albicans Pathogenicity.

Luna-Tapia A, Willems HME, Parker JE, Tournu H, Barker KS, Nishimoto AT, Rogers PD, Kelly SL, Peters BM, Palmer GE.

MBio. 2018 May 22;9(3). pii: e00225-18. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00225-18.


[Azole resistance in Candida spp].

Kakeya H, Miyazaki T, Miyazaki Y, Kohno S.

Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi. 2003;44(2):87-92. Review. Japanese.


Identification of genetic markers of resistance to echinocandins, azoles and 5-fluorocytosine in Candida glabrata by next-generation sequencing: a feasibility study.

Biswas C, Chen SC, Halliday C, Kennedy K, Playford EG, Marriott DJ, Slavin MA, Sorrell TC, Sintchenko V.

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017 Sep;23(9):676.e7-676.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.03.014. Epub 2017 Mar 23.


UPC2A is required for high-level azole antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata.

Whaley SG, Caudle KE, Vermitsky JP, Chadwick SG, Toner G, Barker KS, Gygax SE, Rogers PD.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Aug;58(8):4543-54. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02217-13. Epub 2014 May 27.


Candida bloodstream infections: comparison of species distribution and resistance to echinocandin and azole antifungal agents in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and non-ICU settings in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2008-2009).

Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Moet GJ, Jones RN, Castanheira M.

Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011 Jul;38(1):65-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.02.016. Epub 2011 Apr 22.


The ATP binding cassette transporter gene CgCDR1 from Candida glabrata is involved in the resistance of clinical isolates to azole antifungal agents.

Sanglard D, Ischer F, Calabrese D, Majcherczyk PA, Bille J.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Nov;43(11):2753-65.

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