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Radical cure of experimental babesiosis in immunodeficient mice using a combination of an endochin-like quinolone and atovaquone.

Lawres LA, Garg A, Kumar V, Bruzual I, Forquer IP, Renard I, Virji AZ, Boulard P, Rodriguez EX, Allen AJ, Pou S, Wegmann KW, Winter RW, Nilsen A, Mao J, Preston DA, Belperron AA, Bockenstedt LK, Hinrichs DJ, Riscoe MK, Doggett JS, Ben Mamoun C.

J Exp Med. 2016 Jun 27;213(7):1307-18. doi: 10.1084/jem.20151519. Epub 2016 Jun 6.


Atovaquone and ELQ-300 Combination Therapy as a Novel Dual-Site Cytochrome bc1 Inhibition Strategy for Malaria.

Stickles AM, Smilkstein MJ, Morrisey JM, Li Y, Forquer IP, Kelly JX, Pou S, Winter RW, Nilsen A, Vaidya AB, Riscoe MK.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Jul 22;60(8):4853-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00791-16. Print 2016 Aug.


Emergence of resistance to azithromycin-atovaquone in immunocompromised patients with Babesia microti infection.

Wormser GP, Prasad A, Neuhaus E, Joshi S, Nowakowski J, Nelson J, Mittleman A, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, Topal J, Krause PJ.

Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Feb 1;50(3):381-6. doi: 10.1086/649859.


Atovaquone and azithromycin for the treatment of babesiosis.

Krause PJ, Lepore T, Sikand VK, Gadbaw J Jr, Burke G, Telford SR 3rd, Brassard P, Pearl D, Azlanzadeh J, Christianson D, McGrath D, Spielman A.

N Engl J Med. 2000 Nov 16;343(20):1454-8.


Targeted Structure-Activity Analysis of Endochin-like Quinolones Reveals Potent Qi and Qo Site Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum Cytochrome bc1 and Identifies ELQ-400 as a Remarkably Effective Compound against Acute Experimental Toxoplasmosis.

McConnell EV, Bruzual I, Pou S, Winter R, Dodean RA, Smilkstein MJ, Krollenbrock A, Nilsen A, Zakharov LN, Riscoe MK, Doggett JS.

ACS Infect Dis. 2018 Nov 9;4(11):1574-1584. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.8b00133. Epub 2018 Aug 30.


Treatment of refractory Babesia microti infection with atovaquone-proguanil in an HIV-infected patient: case report.

Vyas JM, Telford SR, Robbins GK.

Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 15;45(12):1588-90. doi: 10.1086/523731.


Atovaquone in the treatment of Babesia microti infections in hamsters.

Wittner M, Lederman J, Tanowitz HB, Rosenbaum GS, Weiss LM.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996 Aug;55(2):219-22.


Babesiosis in humans: a treatment review.

Weiss LM.

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2002 Aug;3(8):1109-15. Review.


Atovaquone and azithromycin treatment for babesiosis in an infant.

Raju M, Salazar JC, Leopold H, Krause PJ.

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Feb;26(2):181-3.


Efficacy, safety and tolerance of imidocarb dipropionate versus atovaquone or buparvaquone plus azithromycin used to treat sick dogs naturally infected with the Babesia microti-like piroplasm.

Checa R, Montoya A, Ortega N, González-Fraga JL, Bartolomé A, Gálvez R, Marino V, Miró G.

Parasit Vectors. 2017 Mar 13;10(1):145. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2049-0.


Establishment of a continuous in vitro culture of Babesia duncani in human erythrocytes reveals unusually high tolerance to recommended therapies.

Abraham A, Brasov I, Thekkiniath J, Kilian N, Lawres L, Gao R, DeBus K, He L, Yu X, Zhu G, Graham MM, Liu X, Molestina R, Ben Mamoun C.

J Biol Chem. 2018 Dec 28;293(52):19974-19981. doi: 10.1074/jbc.AC118.005771. Epub 2018 Nov 21.


Chemotherapy against babesiosis.

Vial HJ, Gorenflot A.

Vet Parasitol. 2006 May 31;138(1-2):147-60. Epub 2006 Feb 28. Review.


Subtle changes in endochin-like quinolone structure alter the site of inhibition within the cytochrome bc1 complex of Plasmodium falciparum.

Stickles AM, de Almeida MJ, Morrisey JM, Sheridan KA, Forquer IP, Nilsen A, Winter RW, Burrows JN, Fidock DA, Vaidya AB, Riscoe MK.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Apr;59(4):1977-82. doi: 10.1128/AAC.04149-14. Epub 2015 Jan 20.


Genetic Evidence for Cytochrome b Qi Site Inhibition by 4(1H)-Quinolone-3-Diarylethers and Antimycin in Toxoplasma gondii.

Alday PH, Bruzual I, Nilsen A, Pou S, Winter R, Ben Mamoun C, Riscoe MK, Doggett JS.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Jan 24;61(2). pii: e01866-16. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01866-16. Print 2017 Feb.


Antimalarial quinolones: synthesis, potency, and mechanistic studies.

Winter RW, Kelly JX, Smilkstein MJ, Dodean R, Hinrichs D, Riscoe MK.

Exp Parasitol. 2008 Apr;118(4):487-97. Epub 2007 Nov 7.


[Babesiosis in an immunocompromised German patient].

Häselbarth K, Kurz M, Hunfeld KP, Krieger G.

Med Klin (Munich). 2008 Feb 15;103(2):104-7. doi: 10.1007/s00063-008-1014-2. German.


Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in an immunocompromised patient: a case report and review.

Wudhikarn K, Perry EH, Kemperman M, Jensen KA, Kline SE.

Am J Med. 2011 Sep;124(9):800-5. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.03.009. Epub 2011 Jun 16. Review.


Alkoxycarbonate Ester Prodrugs of Preclinical Drug Candidate ELQ-300 for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Malaria.

Frueh L, Li Y, Mather MW, Li Q, Pou S, Nilsen A, Winter RW, Forquer IP, Pershing AM, Xie LH, Smilkstein MJ, Caridha D, Koop DR, Campbell RF, Sciotti RJ, Kreishman-Deitrick M, Kelly JX, Vesely B, Vaidya AB, Riscoe MK.

ACS Infect Dis. 2017 Oct 13;3(10):728-735. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00062. Epub 2017 Sep 27.


Misdiagnosis of Babesiosis as Malaria, Equatorial Guinea, 2014.

Arsuaga M, González LM, Padial ES, Dinkessa AW, Sevilla E, Trigo E, Puente S, Gray J, Montero E.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;24(8):1588-1589. doi: 10.3201/eid2408.180180.

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