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Dopamine and glucose, obesity, and reward deficiency syndrome.

Blum K, Thanos PK, Gold MS.

Front Psychol. 2014 Sep 17;5:919. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00919. eCollection 2014. Review.


Activation instead of blocking mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry is a preferred modality in the long term treatment of reward deficiency syndrome (RDS): a commentary.

Blum K, Chen AL, Chen TJ, Braverman ER, Reinking J, Blum SH, Cassel K, Downs BW, Waite RL, Williams L, Prihoda TJ, Kerner MM, Palomo T, Comings DE, Tung H, Rhoades P, Oscar-Berman M.

Theor Biol Med Model. 2008 Nov 12;5:24. doi: 10.1186/1742-4682-5-24. Review.


Neurogenetics of dopaminergic receptor supersensitivity in activation of brain reward circuitry and relapse: proposing "deprivation-amplification relapse therapy" (DART).

Blum K, Chen TJ, Downs BW, Bowirrat A, Waite RL, Braverman ER, Madigan M, Oscar-Berman M, DiNubile N, Stice E, Giordano J, Morse S, Gold M.

Postgrad Med. 2009 Nov;121(6):176-96. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2009.11.2087. Review.


Do dopaminergic gene polymorphisms affect mesolimbic reward activation of music listening response? Therapeutic impact on Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS).

Blum K, Chen TJ, Chen AL, Madigan M, Downs BW, Waite RL, Braverman ER, Kerner M, Bowirrat A, Giordano J, Henshaw H, Gold MS.

Med Hypotheses. 2010 Mar;74(3):513-20. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2009.10.008. Epub 2009 Nov 14.


Genotrim, a DNA-customized nutrigenomic product, targets genetic factors of obesity: hypothesizing a dopamine-glucose correlation demonstrating reward deficiency syndrome (RDS).

Blum K, Chen TJ, Meshkin B, Downs BW, Gordon CA, Blum S, Mangucci JF, Braverman ER, Arcuri V, Deutsch R, Pons MM.

Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(4):844-52. Epub 2006 Oct 27.


Neuro-chemical activation of brain reward meso-limbic circuitry is associated with relapse prevention and drug hunger: a hypothesis.

Blum K, Gold MS.

Med Hypotheses. 2011 Apr;76(4):576-84. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.01.005.


Manipulation of catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) activity to influence the attenuation of substance seeking behavior, a subtype of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), is dependent upon gene polymorphisms: a hypothesis.

Blum K, Chen TJ, Meshkin B, Waite RL, Downs BW, Blum SH, Mengucci JF, Arcuri V, Braverman ER, Palomo T.

Med Hypotheses. 2007;69(5):1054-60. Epub 2007 Apr 30.


Acute intravenous synaptamine complex variant KB220™ "normalizes" neurological dysregulation in patients during protracted abstinence from alcohol and opiates as observed using quantitative electroencephalographic and genetic analysis for reward polymorphisms: part 1, pilot study with 2 case reports.

Miller DK, Bowirrat A, Manka M, Miller M, Stokes S, Manka D, Allen C, Gant C, Downs BW, Smolen A, Stevens E, Yeldandi S, Blum K.

Postgrad Med. 2010 Nov;122(6):188-213. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2010.11.2236. Review.


Dopamine in the Brain: Hypothesizing Surfeit or Deficit Links to Reward and Addiction.

Blum K, Thanos PK, Oscar-Berman M, Febo M, Baron D, Badgaiyan RD, Gardner E, Demetrovics Z, Fahlke C, Haberstick BC, Dushaj K, Gold MS.

J Reward Defic Syndr. 2015;1(3):95-104. Epub 2015 Oct 23.


Imaging of brain dopamine pathways: implications for understanding obesity.

Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Thanos PK, Fowler JS.

J Addict Med. 2009 Mar;3(1):8-18. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0b013e31819a86f7.


Reward circuitry dopaminergic activation regulates food and drug craving behavior.

Blum K, Liu Y, Shriner R, Gold MS.

Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17(12):1158-67.


Neuro-Genetics of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) as the Root Cause of "Addiction Transfer": A New Phenomenon Common after Bariatric Surgery.

Blum K, Bailey J, Gonzalez AM, Oscar-Berman M, Liu Y, Giordano J, Braverman E, Gold M.

J Genet Syndr Gene Ther. 2011 Dec 23;2012(1). pii: S2-001.


Reward deficiency syndrome: a biogenetic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors.

Blum K, Braverman ER, Holder JM, Lubar JF, Monastra VJ, Miller D, Lubar JO, Chen TJ, Comings DE.

J Psychoactive Drugs. 2000 Nov;32 Suppl:i-iv, 1-112. Review.


Reward deficiency syndrome: genetic aspects of behavioral disorders.

Comings DE, Blum K.

Prog Brain Res. 2000;126:325-41. Review.


Molecular Genetic Testing in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Facts and Fiction.

Blum K, Badgaiyan RD, Agan G, Fratantonio J, Simpatico T, Febo M, Haberstick BC, Smolen A, Gold MS.

J Reward Defic Syndr. 2015;1(1):65-68.


Hypothesizing that, A Pro-Dopamine Regulator (KB220Z) Should Optimize, but Not Hyper-Activate the Activity of Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR-1) and Induce Anti-Craving of Psychostimulants in the Long-Term.

Blum K, Badgaiyan RD, Braverman ER, Dushaj K, Li M, Thanos PK, Demetrovics Z, Febo M.

J Reward Defic Syndr Addict Sci. 2016;2(1):14-21. doi: 10.17756/jrdsas.2016-023. Epub 2016 Jun 29.


Coupling Neurogenetics (GARS™) and a Nutrigenomic Based Dopaminergic Agonist to Treat Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Targeting Polymorphic Reward Genes for Carbohydrate Addiction Algorithms.

Blum K, Simpatico T, Badgaiyan RD, Demetrovics Z, Fratantonio J, Agan G, Febo M, Gold MS.

J Reward Defic Syndr. 2015;1(2):75-80. Epub 2015 Jun 24.


Overcoming qEEG abnormalities and reward gene deficits during protracted abstinence in male psychostimulant and polydrug abusers utilizing putative dopamine D₂ agonist therapy: part 2.

Blum K, Chen TJ, Morse S, Giordano J, Chen AL, Thompson J, Allen C, Smolen A, Lubar J, Stice E, Downs BW, Waite RL, Madigan MA, Kerner M, Fornari F, Braverman ER.

Postgrad Med. 2010 Nov;122(6):214-26. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2010.11.2237.


Clinically Combating Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) with Dopamine Agonist Therapy as a Paradigm Shift: Dopamine for Dinner?

Blum K, Febo M, Thanos PK, Baron D, Fratantonio J, Gold M.

Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Dec;52(3):1862-1869. doi: 10.1007/s12035-015-9110-9. Epub 2015 Mar 10. Review.

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