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Variation in AKR1C3, which encodes the neuroactive steroid synthetic enzyme 3α-HSD type 2 (17β-HSD type 5), moderates the subjective effects of alcohol.

Milivojevic V, Feinn R, Kranzler HR, Covault J.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014 Sep;231(17):3597-608. doi: 10.1007/s00213-014-3614-2. Epub 2014 May 17.


Variation in genes encoding the neuroactive steroid synthetic enzymes 5α-reductase type 1 and 3α-reductase type 2 is associated with alcohol dependence.

Milivojevic V, Kranzler HR, Gelernter J, Burian L, Covault J.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 May;35(5):946-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01425.x. Epub 2011 Feb 15.


Dutasteride reduces alcohol's sedative effects in men in a human laboratory setting and reduces drinking in the natural environment.

Covault J, Pond T, Feinn R, Arias AJ, Oncken C, Kranzler HR.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014 Sep;231(17):3609-18. doi: 10.1007/s00213-014-3487-4. Epub 2014 Feb 21.


Androgen inactivation and steroid-converting enzyme expression in abdominal adipose tissue in men.

Blouin K, Richard C, Brochu G, Hould FS, Lebel S, Marceau S, Biron S, Luu-The V, Tchernof A.

J Endocrinol. 2006 Dec;191(3):637-49.


GABRA2 alleles moderate the subjective effects of alcohol, which are attenuated by finasteride.

Pierucci-Lagha A, Covault J, Feinn R, Nellissery M, Hernandez-Avila C, Oncken C, Morrow AL, Kranzler HR.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Jun;30(6):1193-203.


Increased expression of type 2 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) and its relationship with androgen receptor in prostate carcinoma.

Fung KM, Samara EN, Wong C, Metwalli A, Krlin R, Bane B, Liu CZ, Yang JT, Pitha JV, Culkin DJ, Kropp BP, Penning TM, Lin HK.

Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006 Mar;13(1):169-80.


Differential effects of ethanol on serum GABAergic 3alpha,5alpha/3alpha,5beta neuroactive steroids in mice, rats, cynomolgus monkeys, and humans.

Porcu P, O'Buckley TK, Alward SE, Song SC, Grant KA, de Wit H, Leslie Morrow A.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010 Mar 1;34(3):432-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01123.x. Epub 2009 Dec 17.


Structure-function aspects and inhibitor design of type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3).

Penning TM, Burczynski ME, Jez JM, Lin HK, Ma H, Moore M, Ratnam K, Palackal N.

Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001 Jan 22;171(1-2):137-49.


Overexpression of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in LNCaP cells diverts androgen metabolism towards testosterone resulting in resistance to the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride.

Byrns MC, Mindnich R, Duan L, Penning TM.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012 May;130(1-2):7-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2011.12.012. Epub 2012 Jan 12.


Expression and characterization of recombinant type 2 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) from human prostate: demonstration of bifunctional 3 alpha/17 beta-HSD activity and cellular distribution.

Lin HK, Jez JM, Schlegel BP, Peehl DM, Pachter JA, Penning TM.

Mol Endocrinol. 1997 Dec;11(13):1971-84. Erratum in: Mol Endocrinol 1999 Nov;12(11):1763.


Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) is expressed in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma but not small cell carcinoma.

Miller VL, Lin HK, Murugan P, Fan M, Penning TM, Brame LS, Yang Q, Fung KM.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2012;5(4):278-89. Epub 2012 Apr 26.


Androgen formation and metabolism in the pulmonary epithelial cell line A549: expression of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3.

Provost PR, Blomquist CH, Godin C, Huang XF, Flamand N, Luu-The V, Nadeau D, Tremblay Y.

Endocrinology. 2000 Aug;141(8):2786-94.


Aldo-keto reductases AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 may enhance progesterone metabolism in ovarian endometriosis.

Hevir N, Vouk K, Sinkovec J, Ribič-Pucelj M, Rižner TL.

Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):217-26. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.01.003. Epub 2011 Jan 11.


Characterization of the 5alpha-reductase-3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase complex in the human brain.

Steckelbroeck S, Watzka M, Reichelt R, Hans VH, Stoffel-Wagner B, Heidrich DD, Schramm J, Bidlingmaier F, Klingmüller D.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Mar;86(3):1324-31.


Importance of 5α-reductase gene polymorphisms on circulating and intraprostatic androgens in prostate cancer.

Lévesque É, Laverdière I, Lacombe L, Caron P, Rouleau M, Turcotte V, Têtu B, Fradet Y, Guillemette C.

Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Feb 1;20(3):576-84. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-1100. Epub 2013 Nov 25.


A GABRA2 variant is associated with increased stimulation and 'high' following alcohol administration.

Arias AJ, Covault J, Feinn R, Pond T, Yang BZ, Ge W, Oncken C, Kranzler HR.

Alcohol Alcohol. 2014 Jan-Feb;49(1):1-9. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agt163. Epub 2013 Oct 27.

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