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Insulin resistance aggravates atherosclerosis by reducing vascular smooth muscle cell survival and increasing CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis.

Martínez-Hervás S, Vinué A, Núñez L, Andrés-Blasco I, Piqueras L, Real JT, Ascaso JF, Burks DJ, Sanz MJ, González-Navarro H.

Cardiovasc Res. 2014 Jul 15;103(2):324-36. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvu115. Epub 2014 Apr 29.


Molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome: role of reduced IRS2-dependent signaling.

González-Navarro H, Vinué A, Vila-Caballer M, Fortuño A, Beloqui O, Zalba G, Burks D, Díez J, Andrés V.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008 Dec;28(12):2187-94. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.108.175299. Epub 2008 Sep 18.


Fractalkine has anti-apoptotic and proliferative effects on human vascular smooth muscle cells via epidermal growth factor receptor signalling.

White GE, Tan TC, John AE, Whatling C, McPheat WL, Greaves DR.

Cardiovasc Res. 2010 Mar 1;85(4):825-35. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvp341. Epub 2009 Oct 19.


Expression of insulin receptor (IR) A and B isoforms, IGF-IR, and IR/IGF-IR hybrid receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells and their role in cell migration in atherosclerosis.

Beneit N, Fernández-García CE, Martín-Ventura JL, Perdomo L, Escribano Ó, Michel JB, García-Gómez G, Fernández S, Díaz-Castroverde S, Egido J, Gómez-Hernández A, Benito M.

Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016 Dec 1;15(1):161.


Characterisation of fractalkine/CX3CL1 and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) expression in abdominal aortic aneurysm disease.

Patel A, Jagadesham VP, Porter KE, Scott DJ, Carding SR.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2008 Jul;36(1):20-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.01.014. Epub 2008 Mar 4.


Inflammatory effects of resistin on human smooth muscle cells: up-regulation of fractalkine and its receptor, CX3CR1 expression by TLR4 and Gi-protein pathways.

Gan AM, Butoi ED, Manea A, Simion V, Stan D, Parvulescu MM, Calin M, Manduteanu I, Simionescu M.

Cell Tissue Res. 2013 Jan;351(1):161-74. doi: 10.1007/s00441-012-1510-9. Epub 2012 Oct 20.


Pharmacological inhibition of the chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, reduces atherosclerosis in mice.

Poupel L, Boissonnas A, Hermand P, Dorgham K, Guyon E, Auvynet C, Charles FS, Lesnik P, Deterre P, Combadiere C.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Oct;33(10):2297-305. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300930. Epub 2013 Jul 25.


Genetic Evidence Supports a Major Role for Akt1 in VSMCs During Atherogenesis.

Rotllan N, Wanschel AC, Fernández-Hernando A, Salerno AG, Offermanns S, Sessa WC, Fernández-Hernando C.

Circ Res. 2015 May 22;116(11):1744-52. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.305895. Epub 2015 Apr 13.


Identification of small proline-rich repeat protein 3 as a novel atheroprotective factor that promotes adaptive Akt signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells.

Segedy AK, Pyle AL, Li B, Zhang Y, Babaev VR, Jat P, Fazio S, Atkinson JB, Linton MF, Young PP.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014 Dec;34(12):2527-36. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.303644. Epub 2014 Oct 2.


Cross talk between smooth muscle cells and monocytes/activated monocytes via CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis augments expression of pro-atherogenic molecules.

Butoi ED, Gan AM, Manduteanu I, Stan D, Calin M, Pirvulescu M, Koenen RR, Weber C, Simionescu M.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Dec;1813(12):2026-35. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2011.08.009. Epub 2011 Aug 22.


Vascular expression of the chemokine CX3CL1 promotes osteoclast recruitment and exacerbates bone resorption in an irradiated murine model.

Han KH, Ryu JW, Lim KE, Lee SH, Kim Y, Hwang CS, Choi JY, Han KO.

Bone. 2014 Apr;61:91-101. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2013.12.032. Epub 2014 Jan 5.


Absence of Akt1 reduces vascular smooth muscle cell migration and survival and induces features of plaque vulnerability and cardiac dysfunction during atherosclerosis.

Fernández-Hernando C, József L, Jenkins D, Di Lorenzo A, Sessa WC.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009 Dec;29(12):2033-40. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.196394. Epub 2009 Sep 17.


Hepatic lipase inactivation decreases atherosclerosis in insulin resistance by reducing LIGHT/Lymphotoxin β-Receptor pathway.

Andrés-Blasco I, Vinué Á, Herrero-Cervera A, Martínez-Hervás S, Nuñez L, Piqueras L, Ascaso JF, Sanz MJ, Burks DJ, González-Navarro H.

Thromb Haemost. 2016 Aug 1;116(2):379-93. doi: 10.1160/TH15-10-0773. Epub 2016 May 12.


Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the development of atherosclerosis with suppressing CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression.

Zhang H, Guo C, Wu D, Zhang A, Gu T, Wang L, Wang C.

PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41147. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041147. Epub 2012 Jul 18.


Signaling of Serum Amyloid A Through Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products as a Possible Mechanism for Uremia-Related Atherosclerosis.

Belmokhtar K, Robert T, Ortillon J, Braconnier A, Vuiblet V, Boulagnon-Rombi C, Diebold MD, Pietrement C, Schmidt AM, Rieu P, Touré F.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016 May;36(5):800-9. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.306349. Epub 2016 Mar 17.


Smooth muscle cells in human atherosclerotic plaques express the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and undergo chemotaxis to the CX3C chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1).

Lucas AD, Bursill C, Guzik TJ, Sadowski J, Channon KM, Greaves DR.

Circulation. 2003 Nov 18;108(20):2498-504. Epub 2003 Oct 27.


Fractalkine is expressed in early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions and supports monocyte recruitment via CX3CR1.

Stolla M, Pelisek J, von Brühl ML, Schäfer A, Barocke V, Heider P, Lorenz M, Tirniceriu A, Steinhart A, Bauersachs J, Bray PF, Massberg S, Schulz C.

PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43572. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043572. Epub 2012 Aug 20.

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