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Systemic immune activation in HIV and potential therapeutic options.

Sinha B, Rubens M.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2014 Apr;36(2):89-95. doi: 10.3109/08923973.2014.890217. Epub 2014 Feb 20. Review.


Early initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy preserves immune function in the gut of HIV-infected patients.

Kök A, Hocqueloux L, Hocini H, Carrière M, Lefrou L, Guguin A, Tisserand P, Bonnabau H, Avettand-Fenoel V, Prazuck T, Katsahian S, Gaulard P, Thiébaut R, Lévy Y, Hüe S.

Mucosal Immunol. 2015 Jan;8(1):127-40. doi: 10.1038/mi.2014.50. Epub 2014 Jul 2.


Effect of probiotic bacteria on microbial host defense, growth, and immune function in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection.

Cunningham-Rundles S, Ahrné S, Johann-Liang R, Abuav R, Dunn-Navarra AM, Grassey C, Bengmark S, Cervia JS.

Nutrients. 2011 Dec;3(12):1042-70. doi: 10.3390/nu3121042. Epub 2011 Dec 19.


Intestinal barrier dysfunction in HIV infection: pathophysiology, clinical implications and potential therapies.

Assimakopoulos SF, Dimitropoulou D, Marangos M, Gogos CA.

Infection. 2014 Dec;42(6):951-9. doi: 10.1007/s15010-014-0666-5. Epub 2014 Jul 29. Review.


Disruption of intestinal CD4+ T cell homeostasis is a key marker of systemic CD4+ T cell activation in HIV-infected individuals.

Gordon SN, Cervasi B, Odorizzi P, Silverman R, Aberra F, Ginsberg G, Estes JD, Paiardini M, Frank I, Silvestri G.

J Immunol. 2010 Nov 1;185(9):5169-79. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1001801. Epub 2010 Oct 1.


Initiation of ART during early acute HIV infection preserves mucosal Th17 function and reverses HIV-related immune activation.

Schuetz A, Deleage C, Sereti I, Rerknimitr R, Phanuphak N, Phuang-Ngern Y, Estes JD, Sandler NG, Sukhumvittaya S, Marovich M, Jongrakthaitae S, Akapirat S, Fletscher JL, Kroon E, Dewar R, Trichavaroj R, Chomchey N, Douek DC, O Connell RJ, Ngauy V, Robb ML, Phanuphak P, Michael NL, Excler JL, Kim JH, de Souza MS, Ananworanich J; RV254/SEARCH 010 and RV304/SEARCH 013 Study Groups.

PLoS Pathog. 2014 Dec 11;10(12):e1004543. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004543. eCollection 2014 Dec.


HIV and hepatitis C coinfection: pathogenesis and microbial translocation.

Page EE, Nelson M, Kelleher P.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2011 Nov;6(6):472-7. doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32834bbc71. Review.


Th17 cells, HIV and the gut mucosal barrier.

Dandekar S, George MD, Bäumler AJ.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010 Mar;5(2):173-8. doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e328335eda3. Review.


Randomized pilot trial of a synbiotic dietary supplement in chronic HIV-1 infection.

Schunter M, Chu H, Hayes TL, McConnell D, Crawford SS, Luciw PA, Bengmark S, Asmuth DM, Brown J, Bevins CL, Shacklett BL, Critchfield JW.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Jun 29;12:84. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-84.


Microbial translocation induces persistent macrophage activation unrelated to HIV-1 levels or T-cell activation following therapy.

Wallet MA, Rodriguez CA, Yin L, Saporta S, Chinratanapisit S, Hou W, Sleasman JW, Goodenow MM.

AIDS. 2010 Jun 1;24(9):1281-90. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328339e228.


Microbial translocation in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and AIDS.

Marchetti G, Tincati C, Silvestri G.

Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013 Jan;26(1):2-18. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00050-12. Review.


Understanding and controlling chronic immune activation in the HIV-infected patients suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy.

Taiwo B, Barcena L, Tressler R.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2013 Mar;10(1):21-32. doi: 10.1007/s11904-012-0147-3. Review.


Systemic immune activation and microbial translocation in dual HIV/tuberculosis-infected subjects.

Toossi Z, Funderburg NT, Sirdeshmuk S, Whalen CC, Nanteza MW, Johnson DF, Mayanja-Kizza H, Hirsch CS.

J Infect Dis. 2013 Jun 15;207(12):1841-9. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit092. Epub 2013 Mar 11.


Lopinavir/ritonavir: a review of its use in the management of HIV infection.

Cvetkovic RS, Goa KL.

Drugs. 2003;63(8):769-802. Review.


Altered host-microbe interaction in HIV: a target for intervention with pro- and prebiotics.

Hummelen R, Vos AP, van't Land B, van Norren K, Reid G.

Int Rev Immunol. 2010 Oct;29(5):485-513. doi: 10.3109/08830185.2010.505310. Review.


A role for syndecan-1 and claudin-2 in microbial translocation during HIV-1 infection.

Smith AJ, Schacker TW, Reilly CS, Haase AT.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Nov;55(3):306-15. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181ecfeca.


Mucosal Th17 cell function is altered during HIV infection and is an independent predictor of systemic immune activation.

Kim CJ, McKinnon LR, Kovacs C, Kandel G, Huibner S, Chege D, Shahabi K, Benko E, Loutfy M, Ostrowski M, Kaul R.

J Immunol. 2013 Sep 1;191(5):2164-73. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1300829. Epub 2013 Jul 26.


Microbial translocation, immune activation, and HIV disease.

Klatt NR, Funderburg NT, Brenchley JM.

Trends Microbiol. 2013 Jan;21(1):6-13. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2012.09.001. Epub 2012 Oct 11. Review.


Microbial translocation in HIV infection: causes, consequences and treatment opportunities.

Sandler NG, Douek DC.

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2012 Sep;10(9):655-66. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2848. Epub 2012 Aug 13. Review.


The role of lipopolysaccharide as a marker of immune activation in HIV-1 infected patients: a systematic literature review.

Vassallo M, Mercié P, Cottalorda J, Ticchioni M, Dellamonica P.

Virol J. 2012 Aug 27;9:174. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-9-174. Review.

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