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Causes of false-positive HIV rapid diagnostic test results.

Klarkowski D, O'Brien DP, Shanks L, Singh KP.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2014 Jan;12(1):49-62. doi: 10.1586/14787210.2014.866516. Review.


The evaluation of a rapid in situ HIV confirmation test in a programme with a high failure rate of the WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm.

Klarkowski DB, Wazome JM, Lokuge KM, Shanks L, Mills CF, O'Brien DP.

PLoS One. 2009;4(2):e4351. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004351. Epub 2009 Feb 6.


Evaluation of HIV testing algorithms in Ethiopia: the role of the tie-breaker algorithm and weakly reacting test lines in contributing to a high rate of false positive HIV diagnoses.

Shanks L, Siddiqui MR, Kliescikova J, Pearce N, Ariti C, Muluneh L, Pirou E, Ritmeijer K, Masiga J, Abebe A.

BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Feb 3;15:39. doi: 10.1186/s12879-015-0769-3.


False positive HIV diagnoses in resource limited settings: operational lessons learned for HIV programmes.

Shanks L, Klarkowski D, O'Brien DP.

PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59906. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059906. Epub 2013 Mar 20.


False positivity of non-targeted infections in malaria rapid diagnostic tests: the case of human african trypanosomiasis.

Gillet P, Mumba Ngoyi D, Lukuka A, Kande V, Atua B, van Griensven J, Muyembe JJ, Jacobs J, Lejon V.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Apr 25;7(4):e2180. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002180. Print 2013.


Dilution testing using rapid diagnostic tests in a HIV diagnostic algorithm: a novel alternative for confirmation testing in resource limited settings.

Shanks L, Siddiqui MR, Abebe A, Piriou E, Pearce N, Ariti C, Masiga J, Muluneh L, Wazome J, Ritmeijer K, Klarkowski D.

Virol J. 2015 May 14;12:75. doi: 10.1186/s12985-015-0306-4.


False-positive oral fluid rapid HIV tests--New York City, 2005-2008.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008 Jun 20;57(24):660-5.


Performance of the new HIV-1/2 diagnostic algorithm in Florida's public health testing population: a review of the first five months of utilization.

Bennett B, Neumann D, Fordan S, Villaraza R, Crowe S, Gillis L.

J Clin Virol. 2013 Dec;58 Suppl 1:e29-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2013.08.016. Epub 2013 Aug 27.


The significance of repeat testing in Turkish blood donors screened with HBV, HCV and HIV immunoassays and the importance of S/CO ratios in the interpretation of HCV/HIV screening test results and as a determinant for further confirmatory testing.

Acar A, Kemahli S, Altunay H, Kosan E, Oncul O, Gorenek L, Cavuslu S.

Transfus Med. 2010 Jun;20(3):152-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3148.2009.00987.x. Epub 2010 Jan 5.


Rapid testing strategies for HIV-1 serodiagnosis in high-prevalence African settings.

Wright RJ, Stringer JS.

Am J Prev Med. 2004 Jul;27(1):42-8.


A human immunodeficiency virus screening algorithm to address the high rate of false-positive results in pregnant women in Japan.

Shima-Sano T, Yamada R, Sekita K, Hankins RW, Hori H, Seto H, Sudo K, Kondo M, Kawahara K, Tsukahara Y, Inaba N, Kato S, Imai M.

PLoS One. 2010 Feb 23;5(2):e9382. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009382.


Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm.

Baveewo S, Kamya MR, Mayanja-Kizza H, Fatch R, Bangsberg DR, Coates T, Hahn JA, Wanyenze RK.

BMC Res Notes. 2012 Mar 19;5:154. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-154.


Inaccurate diagnosis of HIV-1 group M and O is a key challenge for ongoing universal access to antiretroviral treatment and HIV prevention in Cameroon.

Aghokeng AF, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Dimodi H, Atem-Tambe A, Tongo M, Butel C, Delaporte E, Peeters M.

PLoS One. 2009 Nov 6;4(11):e7702. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007702.


Optimizing the delivery of HIV counseling and testing services: the Uganda experience using rapid HIV antibody test algorithms.

Downing RG, Otten RA, Marum E, Biryahwaho B, Alwano-Edyegu MG, Sempala SD, Fridlund CA, Dondero TJ, Campbell C, Rayfield MA.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Aug 1;18(4):384-8.


Investigation of false positive results with an oral fluid rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test.

Jafa K, Patel P, Mackellar DA, Sullivan PS, Delaney KP, Sides TL, Newman AP, Paul SM, Cadoff EM, Martin EG, Keenan PA, Branson BM; OraQuick Study Group.

PLoS One. 2007 Jan 31;2(1):e185.


Blood screening for human immunodeficiency virus: a new algorithm to reduce the false-positive results.

Zhang R, Sun Y, Wang L, Zhang K, Xie J, Li J.

Transfus Med. 2013 Aug;23(4):260-4. doi: 10.1111/tme.12042. Epub 2013 May 2.


Advantages of an alternative strategy based on consecutive HIV serological tests for detection of HIV antibodies in Central African Republic.

Ménard D, Mavolomadé EE, Mandeng MJ, Talarmin A.

J Virol Methods. 2003 Aug;111(2):129-34.


Variation in specificity of HIV rapid diagnostic tests over place and time: an analysis of discordancy data using a Bayesian approach.

Klarkowski D, Glass K, O'Brien D, Lokuge K, Piriou E, Shanks L.

PLoS One. 2013 Nov 25;8(11):e81656. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081656. eCollection 2013.


Low specificities of HIV diagnostic tests caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness.

Lejon V, Ngoyi DM, Ilunga M, Beelaert G, Maes I, Büscher P, Fransen K.

J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Aug;48(8):2836-9. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00456-10. Epub 2010 Jun 23.


Field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests for screening and confirming HIV-1 infection in Honduras.

Stetler HC, Granade TC, Nunez CA, Meza R, Terrell S, Amador L, George JR.

AIDS. 1997 Mar;11(3):369-75.


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