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Metformin trims fats to restore insulin sensitivity.

Shaw RJ.

Nat Med. 2013 Dec;19(12):1570-2. doi: 10.1038/nm.3414. No abstract available.


Single phosphorylation sites in Acc1 and Acc2 regulate lipid homeostasis and the insulin-sensitizing effects of metformin.

Fullerton MD, Galic S, Marcinko K, Sikkema S, Pulinilkunnil T, Chen ZP, O'Neill HM, Ford RJ, Palanivel R, O'Brien M, Hardie DG, Macaulay SL, Schertzer JD, Dyck JR, van Denderen BJ, Kemp BE, Steinberg GR.

Nat Med. 2013 Dec;19(12):1649-54. doi: 10.1038/nm.3372. Epub 2013 Nov 3.


AMPK phosphorylation of ACC2 is required for skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity in mice.

O'Neill HM, Lally JS, Galic S, Thomas M, Azizi PD, Fullerton MD, Smith BK, Pulinilkunnil T, Chen Z, Samaan MC, Jorgensen SB, Dyck JR, Holloway GP, Hawke TJ, van Denderen BJ, Kemp BE, Steinberg GR.

Diabetologia. 2014 Aug;57(8):1693-702. doi: 10.1007/s00125-014-3273-1. Epub 2014 Jun 10.


Metformin decreases high-fat diet-induced renal injury by regulating the expression of adipokines and the renal AMP-activated protein kinase/acetyl-CoA carboxylase pathway in mice.

Kim D, Lee JE, Jung YJ, Lee AS, Lee S, Park SK, Kim SH, Park BH, Kim W, Kang KP.

Int J Mol Med. 2013 Dec;32(6):1293-302. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2013.1508. Epub 2013 Sep 25.


AMP-activated protein kinase is required for the lipid-lowering effect of metformin in insulin-resistant human HepG2 cells.

Zang M, Zuccollo A, Hou X, Nagata D, Walsh K, Herscovitz H, Brecher P, Ruderman NB, Cohen RA.

J Biol Chem. 2004 Nov 12;279(46):47898-905. Epub 2004 Sep 14.


Effects of Icariin on insulin resistance via the activation of AMPK pathway in C2C12 mouse muscle cells.

Han Y, Jung HW, Park YK.

Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Jul 5;758:60-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.059. Epub 2015 Mar 31.


Metformin decreases GnRH- and activin-induced gonadotropin secretion in rat pituitary cells: potential involvement of adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (PRKA).

Tosca L, Froment P, Rame C, McNeilly JR, McNeilly AS, Maillard V, Dupont J.

Biol Reprod. 2011 Feb;84(2):351-62. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.110.087023. Epub 2010 Oct 27.


Metformin interacts with AMPK through binding to γ subunit.

Zhang Y, Wang Y, Bao C, Xu Y, Shen H, Chen J, Yan J, Chen Y.

Mol Cell Biochem. 2012 Sep;368(1-2):69-76. doi: 10.1007/s11010-012-1344-5. Epub 2012 May 30.


Metformin attenuates ovarian cancer cell growth in an AMP-kinase dispensable manner.

Rattan R, Giri S, Hartmann LC, Shridhar V.

J Cell Mol Med. 2011 Jan;15(1):166-78. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00954.x.


Adiponectin resistance precedes the accumulation of skeletal muscle lipids and insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats.

Mullen KL, Pritchard J, Ritchie I, Snook LA, Chabowski A, Bonen A, Wright D, Dyck DJ.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Feb;296(2):R243-51. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.90774.2008. Epub 2008 Dec 10.


Abnormal metabolism flexibility in response to high palmitate concentrations in myotubes derived from obese type 2 diabetic patients.

Kitzmann M, Lantier L, Hébrard S, Mercier J, Foretz M, Aguer C.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Apr;1812(4):423-30. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2010.12.007. Epub 2010 Dec 21.


Salicylate activates AMPK and synergizes with metformin to reduce the survival of prostate and lung cancer cells ex vivo through inhibition of de novo lipogenesis.

O'Brien AJ, Villani LA, Broadfield LA, Houde VP, Galic S, Blandino G, Kemp BE, Tsakiridis T, Muti P, Steinberg GR.

Biochem J. 2015 Jul 15;469(2):177-87. doi: 10.1042/BJ20150122. Epub 2015 May 5.


Restoration of skeletal muscle leptin response does not precede the exercise-induced recovery of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in high-fat-fed rats.

Ritchie IR, Gulli RA, Stefanyk LE, Harasim E, Chabowski A, Dyck DJ.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Feb;300(2):R492-500. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00602.2010. Epub 2010 Nov 17.


Metformin attenuates palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 cells through the AMP-activated protein kinase/sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c pathway.

Wu W, Tang S, Shi J, Yin W, Cao S, Bu R, Zhu D, Bi Y.

Int J Mol Med. 2015 Jun;35(6):1734-40. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2015.2187. Epub 2015 Apr 17.


TallyHO obese female mice experience poor reproductive outcomes and abnormal blastocyst metabolism that is reversed by metformin.

Louden ED, Luzzo KM, Jimenez PT, Chi T, Chi M, Moley KH.

Reprod Fertil Dev. 2014 Dec;27(1):31-9. doi: 10.1071/RD14339.


Globular adiponectin resistance develops independently of impaired insulin-stimulated glucose transport in soleus muscle from high-fat-fed rats.

Mullen KL, Smith AC, Junkin KA, Dyck DJ.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jul;293(1):E83-90. Epub 2007 Mar 13.


Metformin regulates hepatic lipid metabolism through activating AMP-activated protein kinase and inducing ATGL in laying hens.

Chen WL, Wei HW, Chiu WZ, Kang CH, Lin TH, Hung CC, Chen MC, Shieh MS, Lee CC, Lee HM.

Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Dec 5;671(1-3):107-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.09.029. Epub 2011 Sep 19.


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