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Evolving Bacterial Envelopes and Plasticity of TLR2-Dependent Responses: Basic Research and Translational Opportunities.

Li J, Lee DS, Madrenas J.

Front Immunol. 2013 Oct 28;4:347. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00347. Review.


Insight into the mechanisms regulating immune homeostasis in health and disease.

Sirisinha S.

Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2011 Mar;29(1):1-14. Review.


Gram-positive bacterial lipoglycans based on a glycosylated diacylglycerol lipid anchor are microbe-associated molecular patterns recognized by TLR2.

Blanc L, Castanier R, Mishra AK, Ray A, Besra GS, Sutcliffe I, Vercellone A, Nigou J.

PLoS One. 2013 Nov 21;8(11):e81593. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081593. eCollection 2013.


Bacterial cell wall macroamphiphiles: pathogen-/microbe-associated molecular patterns detected by mammalian innate immune system.

Ray A, Cot M, Puzo G, Gilleron M, Nigou J.

Biochimie. 2013 Jan;95(1):33-42. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2012.06.007. Epub 2012 Jun 15. Review.


Human intestinal epithelial cells are broadly unresponsive to Toll-like receptor 2-dependent bacterial ligands: implications for host-microbial interactions in the gut.

Melmed G, Thomas LS, Lee N, Tesfay SY, Lukasek K, Michelsen KS, Zhou Y, Hu B, Arditi M, Abreu MT.

J Immunol. 2003 Feb 1;170(3):1406-15.


The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors.

Ozinsky A, Underhill DM, Fontenot JD, Hajjar AM, Smith KD, Wilson CB, Schroeder L, Aderem A.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Dec 5;97(25):13766-71.


Differential role of Dok1 and Dok2 in TLR2-induced inflammatory signaling in glia.

Downer EJ, Johnston DG, Lynch MA.

Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013 Sep;56:148-58. doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2013.04.007. Epub 2013 May 7.


Heterodimerization of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6 expands the ligand spectrum but does not lead to differential signaling.

Farhat K, Riekenberg S, Heine H, Debarry J, Lang R, Mages J, Buwitt-Beckmann U, Röschmann K, Jung G, Wiesmüller KH, Ulmer AJ.

J Leukoc Biol. 2008 Mar;83(3):692-701. Epub 2007 Dec 3.


Contribution of Toll-like receptors to the innate immune response to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

Elson G, Dunn-Siegrist I, Daubeuf B, Pugin J.

Blood. 2007 Feb 15;109(4):1574-83. Epub 2006 Oct 12.


Targeting the TLR co-receptor CD14 with TLR2-derived peptides modulates immune responses to pathogens.

Raby AC, Holst B, Le Bouder E, Diaz C, Ferran E, Conraux L, Guillemot JC, Coles B, Kift-Morgan A, Colmont CS, Szakmany T, Ferrara P, Hall JE, Topley N, Labéta MO.

Sci Transl Med. 2013 May 15;5(185):185ra64. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005544.


Innate immune recognition of microbial cell wall components and microbial strategies to evade such recognitions.

Sukhithasri V, Nisha N, Biswas L, Anil Kumar V, Biswas R.

Microbiol Res. 2013 Aug 25;168(7):396-406. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2013.02.005. Epub 2013 Apr 8. Review.


Human fetal membranes generate distinct cytokine profiles in response to bacterial Toll-like receptor and nod-like receptor agonists.

Hoang M, Potter JA, Gysler SM, Han CS, Guller S, Norwitz ER, Abrahams VM.

Biol Reprod. 2014 Feb 27;90(2):39. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.113.115428. Print 2014 Feb.


Loss of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 leads to differential induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and proapoptotic responses in the intestinal epithelium under conditions of chronic inflammation.

Messlik A, Schmechel S, Kisling S, Bereswill S, Heimesaat MM, Fischer A, Göbel U, Haller D.

J Proteome Res. 2009 Oct;8(10):4406-17. doi: 10.1021/pr9000465.


Role of salivary epithelial toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in modulating innate immune responses in chronic periodontitis.

Swaminathan V, Prakasam S, Puri V, Srinivasan M.

J Periodontal Res. 2013 Dec;48(6):757-65. doi: 10.1111/jre.12066. Epub 2013 May 17.


Glucocorticoids synergistically enhance nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced Toll-like receptor 2 expression via a negative cross-talk with p38 MAP kinase.

Shuto T, Imasato A, Jono H, Sakai A, Xu H, Watanabe T, Rixter DD, Kai H, Andalibi A, Linthicum F, Guan YL, Han J, Cato AC, Lim DJ, Akira S, Li JD.

J Biol Chem. 2002 May 10;277(19):17263-70. Epub 2002 Feb 26.


Disifin (sodium tosylchloramide) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs): evolving importance in health and diseases.

Ofodile ON.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Dec;34(12):751-62. Epub 2007 Sep 5. Review.


Innate immunity of the ocular surface.

Ueta M, Kinoshita S.

Brain Res Bull. 2010 Feb 15;81(2-3):219-28. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.10.001. Epub 2009 Oct 12. Review.


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