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Sterol C-22 Desaturase ERG5 Mediates the Sensitivity to Antifungal Azoles in Neurospora crassa and Fusarium verticillioides.

Sun X, Wang W, Wang K, Yu X, Liu J, Zhou F, Xie B, Li S.

Front Microbiol. 2013 May 29;4:127. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00127. eCollection 2013.


Transcription factor CCG-8 as a new regulator in the adaptation to antifungal azole stress.

Sun X, Wang K, Yu X, Liu J, Zhang H, Zhou F, Xie B, Li S.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(3):1434-42. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02244-13. Epub 2013 Dec 16.


A clinical isolate of Candida albicans with mutations in ERG11 (encoding sterol 14alpha-demethylase) and ERG5 (encoding C22 desaturase) is cross resistant to azoles and amphotericin B.

Martel CM, Parker JE, Bader O, Weig M, Gross U, Warrilow AG, Kelly DE, Kelly SL.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Sep;54(9):3578-83. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00303-10. Epub 2010 Jun 14.


Transcription factor ADS-4 regulates adaptive responses and resistance to antifungal azole stress.

Wang K, Zhang Z, Chen X, Sun X, Jin C, Liu H, Li S.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Sep;59(9):5396-404. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00542-15. Epub 2015 Jun 22.


De-repression of CSP-1 activates adaptive responses to antifungal azoles.

Chen X, Xue W, Zhou J, Zhang Z, Wei S, Liu X, Sun X, Wang W, Li S.

Sci Rep. 2016 Jan 19;6:19447. doi: 10.1038/srep19447.


Facultative sterol uptake in an ergosterol-deficient clinical isolate of Candida glabrata harboring a missense mutation in ERG11 and exhibiting cross-resistance to azoles and amphotericin B.

Hull CM, Parker JE, Bader O, Weig M, Gross U, Warrilow AG, Kelly DE, Kelly SL.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Aug;56(8):4223-32. doi: 10.1128/AAC.06253-11. Epub 2012 May 21.


The Hsp90 Co-chaperones Sti1, Aha1, and P23 Regulate Adaptive Responses to Antifungal Azoles.

Gu X, Xue W, Yin Y, Liu H, Li S, Sun X.

Front Microbiol. 2016 Oct 5;7:1571. eCollection 2016.


Characterization of the sterol 14α-demethylases of Fusarium graminearum identifies a novel genus-specific CYP51 function.

Fan J, Urban M, Parker JE, Brewer HC, Kelly SL, Hammond-Kosack KE, Fraaije BA, Liu X, Cools HJ.

New Phytol. 2013 May;198(3):821-35. doi: 10.1111/nph.12193. Epub 2013 Feb 27.


[Effect of over-expression of sterol C-22 desaturase on ergosterol production in yeast strains].

Cai PL, He XP, Liu N, Zhang BR.

Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2007 Apr;47(2):274-9. Chinese.


Identification and characterization of four azole-resistant erg3 mutants of Candida albicans.

Martel CM, Parker JE, Bader O, Weig M, Gross U, Warrilow AG, Rolley N, Kelly DE, Kelly SL.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Nov;54(11):4527-33. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00348-10. Epub 2010 Aug 23.


Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in clinical Candida species isolated from Tunisian hospitals.

Eddouzi J, Parker JE, Vale-Silva LA, Coste A, Ischer F, Kelly S, Manai M, Sanglard D.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Jul;57(7):3182-93. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00555-13. Epub 2013 Apr 29.


Upregulation of ERG genes in Candida species by azoles and other sterol biosynthesis inhibitors.

Henry KW, Nickels JT, Edlind TD.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Oct;44(10):2693-700.


The heme-binding protein Dap1 links iron homeostasis to azole resistance via the P450 protein Erg11 in Candida glabrata.

Hosogaya N, Miyazaki T, Nagi M, Tanabe K, Minematsu A, Nagayoshi Y, Yamauchi S, Nakamura S, Imamura Y, Izumikawa K, Kakeya H, Yanagihara K, Miyazaki Y, Kugiyama K, Kohno S.

FEMS Yeast Res. 2013 Jun;13(4):411-21. doi: 10.1111/1567-1364.12043. Epub 2013 Apr 8.


Molecular basis of resistance to azole antifungals.

Lupetti A, Danesi R, Campa M, Del Tacca M, Kelly S.

Trends Mol Med. 2002 Feb;8(2):76-81. Review.


Accumulation of 3-ketosteroids induced by itraconazole in azole-resistant clinical Candida albicans isolates.

Marichal P, Gorrens J, Laurijssens L, Vermuyten K, Van Hove C, Le Jeune L, Verhasselt P, Sanglard D, Borgers M, Ramaekers FC, Odds F, Vanden Bossche H.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Nov;43(11):2663-70.


Mechanism of azole antifungal activity as determined by liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric monitoring of ergosterol biosynthesis.

Heimark L, Shipkova P, Greene J, Munayyer H, Yarosh-Tomaine T, DiDomenico B, Hare R, Pramanik BN.

J Mass Spectrom. 2002 Mar;37(3):265-9.


Purification, reconstitution, and inhibition of cytochrome P-450 sterol delta22-desaturase from the pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata.

Lamb DC, Maspahy S, Kelly DE, Manning NJ, Geber A, Bennett JE, Kelly SL.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Jul;43(7):1725-8.


The ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, transporter genes, and azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

Ferreira ME, Colombo AL, Paulsen I, Ren Q, Wortman J, Huang J, Goldman MH, Goldman GH.

Med Mycol. 2005 May;43 Suppl 1:S313-9. Review.


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