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An essential role for the N-terminal fragment of Toll-like receptor 9 in DNA sensing.

Onji M, Kanno A, Saitoh S, Fukui R, Motoi Y, Shibata T, Matsumoto F, Lamichhane A, Sato S, Kiyono H, Yamamoto K, Miyake K.

Nat Commun. 2013;4:1949. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2949.


Essential role for Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)-unique cysteines in an intramolecular disulfide bond, proteolytic cleavage and RNA sensing.

Kanno A, Yamamoto C, Onji M, Fukui R, Saitoh S, Motoi Y, Shibata T, Matsumoto F, Muta T, Miyake K.

Int Immunol. 2013 Jul;25(7):413-22. doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxt007.


The ectodomain of Toll-like receptor 9 is cleaved to generate a functional receptor.

Ewald SE, Lee BL, Lau L, Wickliffe KE, Shi GP, Chapman HA, Barton GM.

Nature. 2008 Dec 4;456(7222):658-62. doi: 10.1038/nature07405.


Toll-like receptors 9 and 3 as essential components of innate immune defense against mouse cytomegalovirus infection.

Tabeta K, Georgel P, Janssen E, Du X, Hoebe K, Crozat K, Mudd S, Shamel L, Sovath S, Goode J, Alexopoulou L, Flavell RA, Beutler B.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 9;101(10):3516-21.


Endocytosis-free DNA sensing by cell surface TLR9 in neutrophils: rapid defense with autoimmune risks.

Miyake K, Onji M.

Eur J Immunol. 2013 Aug;43(8):2006-9. doi: 10.1002/eji.201343882.


Burn injury triggered dysfunction in dendritic cell response to TLR9 activation and resulted in skewed T cell functions.

Shen H, de Almeida PE, Kang KH, Yao P, Chan CW.

PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e50238. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050238.


Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel anti-TLR9 intrabody.

Reimer E, Somplatzki S, Zegenhagen D, Hänel S, Fels A, Bollhorst T, Hovest LG, Bauer S, Kirschning CJ, Böldicke T.

Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2013 Sep;18(3):433-46. doi: 10.2478/s11658-013-0098-8.


Proteolytic cleavage in an endolysosomal compartment is required for activation of Toll-like receptor 9.

Park B, Brinkmann MM, Spooner E, Lee CC, Kim YM, Ploegh HL.

Nat Immunol. 2008 Dec;9(12):1407-14. doi: 10.1038/ni.1669.


Unc93B1 biases Toll-like receptor responses to nucleic acid in dendritic cells toward DNA- but against RNA-sensing.

Fukui R, Saitoh S, Matsumoto F, Kozuka-Hata H, Oyama M, Tabeta K, Beutler B, Miyake K.

J Exp Med. 2009 Jun 8;206(6):1339-50. doi: 10.1084/jem.20082316.


A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA.

Hemmi H, Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Kaisho T, Sato S, Sanjo H, Matsumoto M, Hoshino K, Wagner H, Takeda K, Akira S.

Nature. 2000 Dec 7;408(6813):740-5. Erratum in: Nature 2001 Feb 1;409(6820):646.


Structural basis of CpG and inhibitory DNA recognition by Toll-like receptor 9.

Ohto U, Shibata T, Tanji H, Ishida H, Krayukhina E, Uchiyama S, Miyake K, Shimizu T.

Nature. 2015 Apr 30;520(7549):702-5. doi: 10.1038/nature14138.


Regulatory molecules required for nucleotide-sensing Toll-like receptors.

Saitoh S, Miyake K.

Immunol Rev. 2009 Jan;227(1):32-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2008.00729.x. Review.


DNase II-dependent DNA digestion is required for DNA sensing by TLR9.

Chan MP, Onji M, Fukui R, Kawane K, Shibata T, Saitoh S, Ohto U, Shimizu T, Barber GN, Miyake K.

Nat Commun. 2015 Jan 20;6:5853. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6853.


Microbial recognition via Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent pathways determines the cytokine response of murine dendritic cell subsets to CD40 triggering.

Edwards AD, Manickasingham SP, Spörri R, Diebold SS, Schulz O, Sher A, Kaisho T, Akira S, Reis e Sousa C.

J Immunol. 2002 Oct 1;169(7):3652-60.


Important role for Toll-like receptor 9 in host defense against meningococcal sepsis.

Sjölinder H, Mogensen TH, Kilian M, Jonsson AB, Paludan SR.

Infect Immun. 2008 Nov;76(11):5421-8. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00615-08.


Endotoxin-induced maturation of MyD88-deficient dendritic cells.

Kaisho T, Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Hoshino K, Akira S.

J Immunol. 2001 May 1;166(9):5688-94.


Recognition of double-stranded RNA by human toll-like receptor 3 and downstream receptor signaling requires multimerization and an acidic pH.

de Bouteiller O, Merck E, Hasan UA, Hubac S, Benguigui B, Trinchieri G, Bates EE, Caux C.

J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 18;280(46):38133-45.


TLR9-dependent activation of dendritic cells by DNA from Leishmania major favors Th1 cell development and the resolution of lesions.

Abou Fakher FH, Rachinel N, Klimczak M, Louis J, Doyen N.

J Immunol. 2009 Feb 1;182(3):1386-96.

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