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Carboetomidate: an analog of etomidate that interacts weakly with 11β-hydroxylase.

Shanmugasundararaj S, Zhou X, Neunzig J, Bernhardt R, Cotten JF, Ge R, Miller KW, Raines DE.

Anesth Analg. 2013 Jun;116(6):1249-56. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e31828b3637. Epub 2013 Mar 14.


Carboetomidate: a pyrrole analog of etomidate designed not to suppress adrenocortical function.

Cotten JF, Forman SA, Laha JK, Cuny GD, Husain SS, Miller KW, Nguyen HH, Kelly EW, Stewart D, Liu A, Raines DE.

Anesthesiology. 2010 Mar;112(3):637-44. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181cf40ed.


In vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies of methoxycarbonyl-carboetomidate.

Pejo E, Cotten JF, Kelly EW, Le Ge R, Cuny GD, Laha JK, Liu J, Lin XJ, Raines DE.

Anesth Analg. 2012 Aug;115(2):297-304. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182320559. Epub 2011 Sep 29.


The pyrrole etomidate analog carboetomidate potently inhibits human 5-HT3A receptor function: comparisons with etomidate and potential implications for emetogenesis.

Desai R, Miller KW, Raines DE.

Anesth Analg. 2013 Mar;116(3):573-9. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e31827d204d. Epub 2013 Feb 11.


Sedative-hypnotic Binding to 11β-hydroxylase.

Pejo E, Zhou X, Husain SS, Raines DE.

Anesthesiology. 2016 Nov;125(5):943-951.


Differential effects of etomidate and its pyrrole analogue carboetomidate on the adrenocortical and cytokine responses to endotoxemia.

Pejo E, Feng Y, Chao W, Cotten JF, Le Ge R, Raines DE.

Crit Care Med. 2012 Jan;40(1):187-92. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31822d7924.


Structure-activity relationship of etomidate derivatives at the GABA(A) receptor: Comparison with binding to 11beta-hydroxylase.

Atucha E, Hammerschmidt F, Zolle I, Sieghart W, Berger ML.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Aug 1;19(15):4284-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.05.065. Epub 2009 May 24.


Carboetomidate inhibits alpha4/beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at concentrations affecting animals.

Pierce DW, Pejo E, Raines DE, Forman SA.

Anesth Analg. 2012 Jul;115(1):70-2. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e318254273e. Epub 2012 Apr 27.


New selective inhibitors of steroid 11beta-hydroxylation in the adrenal cortex. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of potent etomidate analogues.

Zolle IM, Berger ML, Hammerschmidt F, Hahner S, Schirbel A, Peric-Simov B.

J Med Chem. 2008 Apr 10;51(7):2244-53. doi: 10.1021/jm800012w. Epub 2008 Mar 19. Erratum in: J Med Chem. 2008 Dec 11;51(23):7652.


Identification of a GABAA receptor anesthetic binding site at subunit interfaces by photolabeling with an etomidate analog.

Li GD, Chiara DC, Sawyer GW, Husain SS, Olsen RW, Cohen JB.

J Neurosci. 2006 Nov 8;26(45):11599-605.


On the biopotency and site of action of drugs affecting endocrine tissues with special reference to the anti-steroidogenic effect of anaesthetic agents.

Robertson WR, Reader SC, Davison B, Frost J, Mitchell R, Kayte R, Lambert A.

Postgrad Med J. 1985;61 Suppl 3:145-51.


Molecular biology of 11β-hydroxylase and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes.

White PC, Pascoe L, Curnow KM, Tannin G, Rösler A.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1992 Dec;43(8):827-35. doi: 10.1016/0960-0760(92)90309-7. Review.


[(3)H]metyrapol and 4-[(131)i]iodometomidate label overlapping, but not identical, binding sites on rat adrenal membranes.

Berger ML, Hammerschmidt F, Qian R, Hahner S, Schirbel A, Stichelberger M, Schibli R, Yu J, Arion VB, Woschek A, Öhler E, Zolle IM.

Mol Pharm. 2013 Mar 4;10(3):1119-30. doi: 10.1021/mp3006227. Epub 2013 Feb 20.


Identification of binding sites in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for TDBzl-etomidate, a photoreactive positive allosteric effector.

Nirthanan S, Garcia G 3rd, Chiara DC, Husain SS, Cohen JB.

J Biol Chem. 2008 Aug 8;283(32):22051-62. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M801332200. Epub 2008 Jun 4.


Closed-loop continuous infusions of etomidate and etomidate analogs in rats: a comparative study of dosing and the impact on adrenocortical function.

Cotten JF, Le Ge R, Banacos N, Pejo E, Husain SS, Williams JH, Raines DE.

Anesthesiology. 2011 Oct;115(4):764-73. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31821950de.


In vitro and in vivo primate evaluation of carbon-11-etomidate and carbon-11-metomidate as potential tracers for PET imaging of the adrenal cortex and its tumors.

Bergström M, Bonasera TA, Lu L, Bergström E, Backlin C, Juhlin C, Långström B.

J Nucl Med. 1998 Jun;39(6):982-9.


Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency.

Peter M.

Semin Reprod Med. 2002 Aug;20(3):249-54. Review.


Neurosteroids allosterically modulate binding of the anesthetic etomidate to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors.

Li GD, Chiara DC, Cohen JB, Olsen RW.

J Biol Chem. 2009 May 1;284(18):11771-5. doi: 10.1074/jbc.C900016200. Epub 2009 Mar 12.


Effects of 18-hydroxylated steroids on corticosteroid production by human aldosterone synthase and 11beta-hydroxylase.

Fisher A, Friel EC, Bernhardt R, Gomez-Sanchez C, Connell JM, Fraser R, Davies E.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Sep;86(9):4326-9.


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