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Hormonal contraception and HIV-1 infection: medroxyprogesterone acetate suppresses innate and adaptive immune mechanisms.

Huijbregts RP, Helton ES, Michel KG, Sabbaj S, Richter HE, Goepfert PA, Hel Z.

Endocrinology. 2013 Mar;154(3):1282-95. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-1850. Epub 2013 Jan 25.


Effect of progestins on immunity: medroxyprogesterone but not norethisterone or levonorgestrel suppresses the function of T cells and pDCs.

Huijbregts RP, Michel KG, Hel Z.

Contraception. 2014 Aug;90(2):123-9. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2014.02.006. Epub 2014 Feb 26. Erratum in: Contraception. 2016 Nov;94(5):578.


Medroxyprogesterone acetate, unlike norethisterone, increases HIV-1 replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and an indicator cell line, via mechanisms involving the glucocorticoid receptor, increased CD4/CD8 ratios and CCR5 levels.

Maritz MF, Ray RM, Bick AJ, Tomasicchio M, Woodland JG, Govender Y, Avenant C, Hapgood JP.

PLoS One. 2018 Apr 26;13(4):e0196043. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196043. eCollection 2018.


Effects of three long-acting reversible contraceptive methods on HIV target cells in the human uterine cervix and peripheral blood.

Li L, Zhou J, Wang W, Huang L, Tu J, Baiamonte L, Stark M, Mills M, Hope TJ, Drobnis EZ, Quayle AJ, Schust DJ.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2019 Feb 22;17(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s12958-019-0469-8.


Effect of Depot Medoxyprogesterone Acetate on Immune Functions and Inflammatory Markers of HIV-Infected Women.

Weinberg A, Park JG, Bosch R, Cho A, Livingston E, Aweeka F, Cramer Y, Watts DH, Luque AE, Cohn SE.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Feb 1;71(2):137-45. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000850.


Research gaps in defining the biological link between HIV risk and hormonal contraception.

Murphy K, Irvin SC, Herold BC.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2014 Aug;72(2):228-35. doi: 10.1111/aji.12209. Epub 2014 Feb 19. Review.


Cervical inflammation and immunity associated with hormonal contraception, pregnancy, and HIV-1 seroconversion.

Morrison C, Fichorova RN, Mauck C, Chen PL, Kwok C, Chipato T, Salata R, Doncel GF.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Jun 1;66(2):109-17. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000103.


Molecular mechanisms linking high dose medroxyprogesterone with HIV-1 risk.

Irvin SC, Herold BC.

PLoS One. 2015 Mar 23;10(3):e0121135. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121135. eCollection 2015.


CCR5 Expression Levels in HIV-Uninfected Women Receiving Hormonal Contraception.

Sciaranghella G, Wang C, Hu H, Anastos K, Merhi Z, Nowicki M, Stanczyk FZ, Greenblatt RM, Cohen M, Golub ET, Watts DH, Alter G, Young MA, Tsibris AM.

J Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 1;212(9):1397-401. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv233. Epub 2015 Apr 20.


Long-term effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on vaginal microbiota, epithelial thickness and HIV target cells.

Mitchell CM, McLemore L, Westerberg K, Astronomo R, Smythe K, Gardella C, Mack M, Magaret A, Patton D, Agnew K, McElrath MJ, Hladik F, Eschenbach D.

J Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 15;210(4):651-5. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu176. Epub 2014 Mar 20.


Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Regulates HIV-1 Uptake and Transcytosis but Not Replication in Primary Genital Epithelial Cells, Resulting in Enhanced T-Cell Infection.

Ferreira VH, Dizzell S, Nazli A, Kafka JK, Mueller K, Nguyen PV, Tremblay MJ, Cochrane A, Kaushic C.

J Infect Dis. 2015 Jun 1;211(11):1745-56. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu832. Epub 2014 Dec 23.


Medroxyprogesterone acetate-treated human, primary endometrial epithelial cells reveal unique gene expression signature linked to innate immunity and HIV-1 susceptibility.

Woods MW, Zahoor MA, Dizzell S, Verschoor CP, Kaushic C.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2018 Jan;79(1). doi: 10.1111/aji.12781. Epub 2017 Nov 6.


The Contribution of Cervicovaginal Infections to the Immunomodulatory Effects of Hormonal Contraception.

Fichorova RN, Chen PL, Morrison CS, Doncel GF, Mendonca K, Kwok C, Chipato T, Salata R, Mauck C.

MBio. 2015 Sep 1;6(5):e00221-15. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00221-15.


Effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate on the immune microenvironment of the human cervix and endometrium: implications for HIV susceptibility.

Smith-McCune KK, Hilton JF, Shanmugasundaram U, Critchfield JW, Greenblatt RM, Seidman D, Averbach S, Giudice LC, Shacklett BL.

Mucosal Immunol. 2017 Sep;10(5):1270-1278. doi: 10.1038/mi.2016.121. Epub 2017 Jan 4.


Genital Injury Signatures and Microbiome Alterations Associated With Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Usage and Intravaginal Drying Practices.

Birse KD, Romas LM, Guthrie BL, Nilsson P, Bosire R, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Broliden K, Burgener AD.

J Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 15;215(4):590-598. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw590.


The effect of menopause on the innate antiviral activity of cervicovaginal lavage.

Chappell CA, Isaacs CE, Xu W, Meyn LA, Uranker K, Dezzutti CS, Moncla BJ, Hillier SL.

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Aug;213(2):204.e1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.03.045. Epub 2015 Mar 25.


Medroxyprogesterone acetate impairs human dendritic cell activation and function.

Quispe Calla NE, Ghonime MG, Cherpes TL, Vicetti Miguel RD.

Hum Reprod. 2015 May;30(5):1169-77. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dev035. Epub 2015 Mar 3.


Hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition risk: implications for individual users and public policies.

Jain AK.

Contraception. 2012 Dec;86(6):645-52. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2012.03.008. Epub 2012 Apr 26. Erratum in: Contraception. 2013 Jul;88(1):195.


Immunosuppressive biological mechanisms support reassessment of use of the injectable contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate.

Hapgood JP.

Endocrinology. 2013 Mar;154(3):985-8. doi: 10.1210/en.2013-1066. No abstract available.


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