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Autophagy inhibitor chloroquine enhanced the cell death inducing effect of the flavonoid luteolin in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma cells.

Verschooten L, Barrette K, Van Kelst S, Rubio Romero N, Proby C, De Vos R, Agostinis P, Garmyn M.

PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e48264. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048264. Epub 2012 Oct 26.


Concomitant inhibition of AKT and autophagy is required for efficient cisplatin-induced apoptosis of metastatic skin carcinoma.

Claerhout S, Verschooten L, Van Kelst S, De Vos R, Proby C, Agostinis P, Garmyn M.

Int J Cancer. 2010 Dec 15;127(12):2790-803. doi: 10.1002/ijc.25300.


Quercetin induces protective autophagy in gastric cancer cells: involvement of Akt-mTOR- and hypoxia-induced factor 1α-mediated signaling.

Wang K, Liu R, Li J, Mao J, Lei Y, Wu J, Zeng J, Zhang T, Wu H, Chen L, Huang C, Wei Y.

Autophagy. 2011 Sep;7(9):966-78. Epub 2011 Sep 1.


Luteolin sensitizes human 786-O renal cell carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

Ou YC, Li JR, Kuan YH, Raung SL, Wang CC, Hung YY, Pan PH, Lu HC, Chen CJ.

Life Sci. 2014 Apr 1;100(2):110-7. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.02.002. Epub 2014 Feb 14.


The flavonoid luteolin increases the resistance of normal, but not malignant keratinocytes, against UVB-induced apoptosis.

Verschooten L, Smaers K, Van Kelst S, Proby C, Maes D, Declercq L, Agostinis P, Garmyn M.

J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Sep;130(9):2277-85. doi: 10.1038/jid.2010.124. Epub 2010 May 13.


Luteolin induces apoptosis by activating Fas signaling pathway at the receptor level in laryngeal squamous cell line Hep-2 cells.

Zhang H, Li X, Zhang Y, Luan X.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014 Jun;271(6):1653-9. doi: 10.1007/s00405-014-2903-z. Epub 2014 Jan 30.


Chloroquine or chloroquine-PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor combinations strongly promote γ-irradiation-induced cell death in primary stem-like glioma cells.

Firat E, Weyerbrock A, Gaedicke S, Grosu AL, Niedermann G.

PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47357. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047357. Epub 2012 Oct 16.


Tetrandrine induces cell death in SAS human oral cancer cells through caspase activation-dependent apoptosis and LC3-I and LC3-II activation-dependent autophagy.

Huang AC, Lien JC, Lin MW, Yang JS, Wu PP, Chang SJ, Lai TY.

Int J Oncol. 2013 Aug;43(2):485-94. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2013.1952. Epub 2013 May 21.


Luteolin acts as a radiosensitizer in non‑small cell lung cancer cells by enhancing apoptotic cell death through activation of a p38/ROS/caspase cascade.

Cho HJ, Ahn KC, Choi JY, Hwang SG, Kim WJ, Um HD, Park JK.

Int J Oncol. 2015 Mar;46(3):1149-58. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2015.2831. Epub 2015 Jan 9.


Comparative studies to evaluate relative in vitro potency of luteolin in inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HaCaT and A375 cells.

George VC, Naveen Kumar DR, Suresh PK, Kumar S, Kumar RA.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(2):631-7.


Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis and non-canonical autophagy by luteolin in NCI-H460 lung carcinoma cells.

Park SH, Park HS, Lee JH, Chi GY, Kim GY, Moon SK, Chang YC, Hyun JW, Kim WJ, Choi YH.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Jun;56:100-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.02.022. Epub 2013 Feb 20.


Luteolin Attenuates Foam Cell Formation and Apoptosis in Ox-LDL-Stimulated Macrophages by Enhancing Autophagy.

Zhang BC, Zhang CW, Wang C, Pan DF, Xu TD, Li DY.

Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;39(5):2065-2076. Epub 2016 Oct 31.


Luteolin induced DNA damage leading to human lung squamous carcinoma CH27 cell apoptosis.

Leung HW, Wu CH, Lin CH, Lee HZ.

Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Jan 31;508(1-3):77-83. Epub 2005 Jan 12.


Axl promotes cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma survival through negative regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members.

Papadakis ES, Cichoń MA, Vyas JJ, Patel N, Ghali L, Cerio R, Storey A, O'Toole EA.

J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Feb;131(2):509-17. doi: 10.1038/jid.2010.326. Epub 2010 Nov 11.


Luteolin induces apoptosis in oral squamous cancer cells.

Yang SF, Yang WE, Chang HR, Chu SC, Hsieh YS.

J Dent Res. 2008 Apr;87(4):401-6.


Luteolin induces G1 arrest in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via the Akt-GSK-3β-Cyclin D1 pathway.

Ong CS, Zhou J, Ong CN, Shen HM.

Cancer Lett. 2010 Dec 8;298(2):167-75. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2010.07.001. Epub 2010 Jul 23.


The dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 and chloroquine synergize to trigger apoptosis via mitochondrial-lysosomal cross-talk.

Seitz C, Hugle M, Cristofanon S, Tchoghandjian A, Fulda S.

Int J Cancer. 2013 Jun 1;132(11):2682-93. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27935. Epub 2012 Dec 4.


Novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex Mono-Pt induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma cells, distinct from cisplatin.

Guo WJ, Zhang YM, Zhang L, Huang B, Tao FF, Chen W, Guo ZJ, Xu Q, Sun Y.

Autophagy. 2013 Jul;9(7):996-1008. doi: 10.4161/auto.24407. Epub 2013 Apr 11.


WWOX suppresses autophagy for inducing apoptosis in methotrexate-treated human squamous cell carcinoma.

Tsai CW, Lai FJ, Sheu HM, Lin YS, Chang TH, Jan MS, Chen SM, Hsu PC, Huang TT, Huang TC, Sheen MC, Chen ST, Chang WC, Chang NS, Hsu LJ.

Cell Death Dis. 2013 Sep 5;4:e792. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2013.308.

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