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Env sequence determinants in CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type-1 subtype C.

Lin NH, Becerril C, Giguel F, Novitsky V, Moyo S, Makhema J, Essex M, Lockman S, Kuritzkes DR, Sagar M.

Virology. 2012 Nov 25;433(2):296-307. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2012.08.013. Epub 2012 Sep 3.


Linkages between HIV-1 specificity for CCR5 or CXCR4 and in vitro usage of alternative coreceptors during progressive HIV-1 subtype C infection.

Cashin K, Jakobsen MR, Sterjovski J, Roche M, Ellett A, Flynn JK, Borm K, Gouillou M, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR.

Retrovirology. 2013 Sep 16;10:98. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-10-98.


Deep Sequencing of the HIV-1 env Gene Reveals Discrete X4 Lineages and Linkage Disequilibrium between X4 and R5 Viruses in the V1/V2 and V3 Variable Regions.

Zhou S, Bednar MM, Sturdevant CB, Hauser BM, Swanstrom R.

J Virol. 2016 Jul 27;90(16):7142-58. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00441-16. Print 2016 Aug 15.


Differences in molecular evolution between switch (R5 to R5X4/X4-tropic) and non-switch (R5-tropic only) HIV-1 populations during infection.

Mild M, Kvist A, Esbjörnsson J, Karlsson I, Fenyö EM, Medstrand P.

Infect Genet Evol. 2010 Apr;10(3):356-64. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2009.05.003. Epub 2009 May 14.


Phenotypic and genotypic comparisons of CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 biological clones isolated from subtype C-infected individuals.

Pollakis G, Abebe A, Kliphuis A, Chalaby MI, Bakker M, Mengistu Y, Brouwer M, Goudsmit J, Schuitemaker H, Paxton WA.

J Virol. 2004 Mar;78(6):2841-52.


Improved coreceptor usage prediction and genotypic monitoring of R5-to-X4 transition by motif analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env V3 loop sequences.

Jensen MA, Li FS, van 't Wout AB, Nickle DC, Shriner D, He HX, McLaughlin S, Shankarappa R, Margolick JB, Mullins JI.

J Virol. 2003 Dec;77(24):13376-88.


Coreceptor tropism in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype D: high prevalence of CXCR4 tropism and heterogeneous composition of viral populations.

Huang W, Eshleman SH, Toma J, Fransen S, Stawiski E, Paxinos EE, Whitcomb JM, Young AM, Donnell D, Mmiro F, Musoke P, Guay LA, Jackson JB, Parkin NT, Petropoulos CJ.

J Virol. 2007 Aug;81(15):7885-93. Epub 2007 May 16.


Genetic characteristics of the V3 region associated with CXCR4 usage in HIV-1 subtype C isolates.

Coetzer M, Cilliers T, Ping LH, Swanstrom R, Morris L.

Virology. 2006 Dec 5-20;356(1-2):95-105. Epub 2006 Aug 30.


Distinct molecular pathways to X4 tropism for a V3-truncated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 lead to differential coreceptor interactions and sensitivity to a CXCR4 antagonist.

Del Prete GQ, Leslie GJ, Haggarty B, Jordan AP, Romano J, Hoxie JA.

J Virol. 2010 Sep;84(17):8777-89. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00333-10. Epub 2010 Jun 23.


Prediction of HIV-1 coreceptor usage (tropism) by sequence analysis using a genotypic approach.

Sierra S, Kaiser R, Lübke N, Thielen A, Schuelter E, Heger E, Däumer M, Reuter S, Esser S, Fätkenheuer G, Pfister H, Oette M, Lengauer T.

J Vis Exp. 2011 Dec 1;(58). pii: 3264. doi: 10.3791/3264.


Purifying selection of CCR5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants in AIDS subjects that have developed syncytium-inducing, CXCR4-tropic viruses.

Fernàndez G, Llano A, Esgleas M, Clotet B, Esté JA, Martínez MA.

J Gen Virol. 2006 May;87(Pt 5):1285-94.


Complex determinants in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 mediate CXCR4-dependent infection of macrophages.

Ghaffari G, Tuttle DL, Briggs D, Burkhardt BR, Bhatt D, Andiman WA, Sleasman JW, Goodenow MM.

J Virol. 2005 Nov;79(21):13250-61.


Tissue-specific sequence alterations in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope favoring CCR5 usage contribute to persistence of dual-tropic virus in the brain.

Gray L, Roche M, Churchill MJ, Sterjovski J, Ellett A, Poumbourios P, Sherieff S, Wang B, Saksena N, Purcell DF, Wesselingh S, Cunningham AL, Brew BJ, Gabuzda D, Gorry PR.

J Virol. 2009 Jun;83(11):5430-41. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02648-08. Epub 2009 Mar 25. Erratum in: J Virol. 2009 Aug;83(15):7794. Sheffief, Shameem [corrected to Sherieff, Shameem].


Coreceptor tropism can be influenced by amino acid substitutions in the gp41 transmembrane subunit of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein.

Huang W, Toma J, Fransen S, Stawiski E, Reeves JD, Whitcomb JM, Parkin N, Petropoulos CJ.

J Virol. 2008 Jun;82(11):5584-93. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02676-07. Epub 2008 Mar 19.


Functional and genetic analysis of coreceptor usage by dualtropic HIV-1 subtype C isolates.

Singh A, Page T, Moore PL, Allgaier RL, Hiramen K, Coovadia HM, Walker BD, Morris L, Ndung'u T.

Virology. 2009 Oct 10;393(1):56-67. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2009.07.021. Epub 2009 Aug 19.


Characterization of V3 sequence heterogeneity in subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from Malawi: underrepresentation of X4 variants.

Ping LH, Nelson JA, Hoffman IF, Schock J, Lamers SL, Goodman M, Vernazza P, Kazembe P, Maida M, Zimba D, Goodenow MM, Eron JJ Jr, Fiscus SA, Cohen MS, Swanstrom R.

J Virol. 1999 Aug;73(8):6271-81.


Suppression of dualtropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 is associated with efficiency of CXCR4 use and baseline virus composition.

Fransen S, Bridger G, Whitcomb JM, Toma J, Stawiski E, Parkin N, Petropoulos CJ, Huang W.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Jul;52(7):2608-15. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01226-07. Epub 2008 Apr 28.

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