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Sensitivity changes over the course of infection increases the likelihood of resistance against fusion but not CCR5 receptor blockers.

Chatziandreou N, Arauz AB, Freitas I, Nyein PH, Fenton G, Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Sagar M.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Dec;28(12):1584-93. doi: 10.1089/AID.2011.0319. Epub 2012 Jun 25.


Differential use of CCR5 by HIV-1 clinical isolates resistant to small-molecule CCR5 antagonists.

Henrich TJ, Lewine NR, Lee SH, Rao SS, Berro R, Gulick RM, Moore JP, Tsibris AM, Kuritzkes DR.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Apr;56(4):1931-5. doi: 10.1128/AAC.06061-11. Epub 2012 Jan 17.


Reduced maximal inhibition in phenotypic susceptibility assays indicates that viral strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc utilize inhibitor-bound receptor for entry.

Westby M, Smith-Burchnell C, Mori J, Lewis M, Mosley M, Stockdale M, Dorr P, Ciaramella G, Perros M.

J Virol. 2007 Mar;81(5):2359-71. Epub 2006 Dec 20.


Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 isolates resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors.

Pugach P, Ketas TJ, Michael E, Moore JP.

Virology. 2008 Aug 1;377(2):401-7. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2008.04.032. Epub 2008 Jun 2.


Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5-using envelopes predominate in dual/mixed-tropic HIV from the plasma of drug-naive individuals.

Irlbeck DM, Amrine-Madsen H, Kitrinos KM, Labranche CC, Demarest JF.

AIDS. 2008 Jul 31;22(12):1425-31. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830184ba.


Use of G-protein-coupled and -uncoupled CCR5 receptors by CCR5 inhibitor-resistant and -sensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants.

Berro R, Yasmeen A, Abrol R, Trzaskowski B, Abi-Habib S, Grunbeck A, Lascano D, Goddard WA 3rd, Klasse PJ, Sakmar TP, Moore JP.

J Virol. 2013 Jun;87(12):6569-81. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00099-13. Epub 2013 Mar 6.


HIV-1 entry inhibitors: classes, applications and factors affecting potency.

Sterjovski J, Churchill MJ, Wesselingh SL, Gorry PR.

Curr HIV Res. 2006 Oct;4(4):387-400. Review.


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 V1-to-V5 envelope variants from the chronic phase of infection use CCR5 and fuse more efficiently than those from early after infection.

Etemad B, Fellows A, Kwambana B, Kamat A, Feng Y, Lee S, Sagar M.

J Virol. 2009 Oct;83(19):9694-708. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00925-09. Epub 2009 Jul 22.


How HIV changes its tropism: evolution and adaptation?

Mosier DE.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009 Mar;4(2):125-30. doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e3283223d61. Review.


A maraviroc-resistant HIV-1 with narrow cross-resistance to other CCR5 antagonists depends on both N-terminal and extracellular loop domains of drug-bound CCR5.

Tilton JC, Wilen CB, Didigu CA, Sinha R, Harrison JE, Agrawal-Gamse C, Henning EA, Bushman FD, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Doms RW.

J Virol. 2010 Oct;84(20):10863-76. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01109-10. Epub 2010 Aug 11.


HIV type 1 from a patient with baseline resistance to CCR5 antagonists uses drug-bound receptor for entry.

Tilton JC, Amrine-Madsen H, Miamidian JL, Kitrinos KM, Pfaff J, Demarest JF, Ray N, Jeffrey JL, Labranche CC, Doms RW.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Jan;26(1):13-24. doi: 10.1089/aid.2009.0132.


HIV-1 predisposed to acquiring resistance to maraviroc (MVC) and other CCR5 antagonists in vitro has an inherent, low-level ability to utilize MVC-bound CCR5 for entry.

Roche M, Jakobsen MR, Ellett A, Salimiseyedabad H, Jubb B, Westby M, Lee B, Lewin SR, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR.

Retrovirology. 2011 Nov 7;8:89. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-8-89.


Virus isolates during acute and chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection show distinct patterns of sensitivity to entry inhibitors.

Rusert P, Kuster H, Joos B, Misselwitz B, Gujer C, Leemann C, Fischer M, Stiegler G, Katinger H, Olson WC, Weber R, Aceto L, Günthard HF, Trkola A.

J Virol. 2005 Jul;79(13):8454-69.


HIV-1 tropism for the central nervous system: Brain-derived envelope glycoproteins with lower CD4 dependence and reduced sensitivity to a fusion inhibitor.

Martín-García J, Cao W, Varela-Rohena A, Plassmeyer ML, González-Scarano F.

Virology. 2006 Mar 1;346(1):169-79. Epub 2005 Nov 23.


Sensitivity of HIV-1 to entry inhibitors correlates with envelope/coreceptor affinity, receptor density, and fusion kinetics.

Reeves JD, Gallo SA, Ahmad N, Miamidian JL, Harvey PE, Sharron M, Pohlmann S, Sfakianos JN, Derdeyn CA, Blumenthal R, Hunter E, Doms RW.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 10;99(25):16249-54. Epub 2002 Nov 20.


HIV entry inhibitors: mechanisms of action and resistance pathways.

Briz V, Poveda E, Soriano V.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006 Apr;57(4):619-27. Epub 2006 Feb 7. Review.


Effect of HIV-1 subtype and tropism on treatment with chemokine coreceptor entry inhibitors; overview of viral entry inhibition.

Panos G, Watson DC.

Crit Rev Microbiol. 2015;41(4):473-87. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2013.867829. Epub 2014 Mar 17. Review.


Review of HIV antiretroviral drug resistance.

Chen TK, Aldrovandi GM.

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Aug;27(8):749-52. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181846e2e. Review. No abstract available.


Reversible and efficient activation of HIV-1 cell entry by a tyrosine-sulfated peptide dissects endocytic entry and inhibitor mechanisms.

Platt EJ, Gomes MM, Kabat D.

J Virol. 2014 Apr;88(8):4304-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.03447-13. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

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