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Pre- and postnatal exposure to kynurenine causes cognitive deficits in adulthood.

Pocivavsek A, Wu HQ, Elmer GI, Bruno JP, Schwarcz R.

Eur J Neurosci. 2012 May;35(10):1605-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08064.x.


Continuous kynurenine administration during the prenatal period, but not during adolescence, causes learning and memory deficits in adult rats.

Pocivavsek A, Thomas MA, Elmer GI, Bruno JP, Schwarcz R.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014 Jul;231(14):2799-809. doi: 10.1007/s00213-014-3452-2.


Early developmental elevations of brain kynurenic acid impair cognitive flexibility in adults: reversal with galantamine.

Alexander KS, Pocivavsek A, Wu HQ, Pershing ML, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP.

Neuroscience. 2013 May 15;238:19-28. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.01.063.


Elevated levels of kynurenic acid during gestation produce neurochemical, morphological, and cognitive deficits in adulthood: implications for schizophrenia.

Pershing ML, Bortz DM, Pocivavsek A, Fredericks PJ, Jørgensen CV, Vunck SA, Leuner B, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP.

Neuropharmacology. 2015 Mar;90:33-41. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.10.017.


Fluctuations in endogenous kynurenic acid control hippocampal glutamate and memory.

Pocivavsek A, Wu HQ, Potter MC, Elmer GI, Pellicciari R, Schwarcz R.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Oct;36(11):2357-67. doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.127.


Age dependency of inhibition of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and tonically active N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by endogenously produced kynurenic acid in the brain.

Alkondon M, Pereira EF, Eisenberg HM, Kajii Y, Schwarcz R, Albuquerque EX.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Jun;337(3):572-82. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.177386.


Reduction of endogenous kynurenic acid formation enhances extracellular glutamate, hippocampal plasticity, and cognitive behavior.

Potter MC, Elmer GI, Bergeron R, Albuquerque EX, Guidetti P, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010 Jul;35(8):1734-42. doi: 10.1038/npp.2010.39.


Chronic neuroleptic treatment reduces endogenous kynurenic acid levels in rat brain.

Ceresoli-Borroni G, Rassoulpour A, Wu HQ, Guidetti P, Schwarcz R.

J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2006 Oct;113(10):1355-65.


Exposure to kynurenic acid during adolescence produces memory deficits in adulthood.

Akagbosu CO, Evans GC, Gulick D, Suckow RF, Bucci DJ.

Schizophr Bull. 2012 Jun;38(4):769-78. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbq151.


Cortical kynurenic acid bi-directionally modulates prefrontal glutamate levels as assessed by microdialysis and rapid electrochemistry.

Konradsson-Geuken A, Wu HQ, Gash CR, Alexander KS, Campbell A, Sozeri Y, Pellicciari R, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP.

Neuroscience. 2010 Sep 15;169(4):1848-59. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.05.052.


Endogenous kynurenic acid regulates extracellular GABA levels in the rat prefrontal cortex.

Beggiato S, Tanganelli S, Fuxe K, Antonelli T, Schwarcz R, Ferraro L.

Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jul;82:11-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.02.019.


Acute elevations of brain kynurenic acid impair cognitive flexibility: normalization by the alpha7 positive modulator galantamine.

Alexander KS, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Apr;220(3):627-37. doi: 10.1007/s00213-011-2539-2.


The astrocyte-derived alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist kynurenic acid controls extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex.

Wu HQ, Pereira EF, Bruno JP, Pellicciari R, Albuquerque EX, Schwarcz R.

J Mol Neurosci. 2010 Jan;40(1-2):204-10. doi: 10.1007/s12031-009-9235-2.


Reduction of brain kynurenic acid improves cognitive function.

Kozak R, Campbell BM, Strick CA, Horner W, Hoffmann WE, Kiss T, Chapin DS, McGinnis D, Abbott AL, Roberts BM, Fonseca K, Guanowsky V, Young DA, Seymour PA, Dounay A, Hajos M, Williams GV, Castner SA.

J Neurosci. 2014 Aug 6;34(32):10592-602. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1107-14.2014.


Prolonged nicotine administration results in biphasic, brain-specific changes in kynurenate levels in the rat.

Rassoulpour A, Wu HQ, Albuquerque EX, Schwarcz R.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Apr;30(4):697-704.


A systemically-available kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) inhibitor restores nicotine-evoked glutamatergic activity in the cortex of rats.

Koshy Cherian A, Gritton H, Johnson DE, Young D, Kozak R, Sarter M.

Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jul;82:41-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.03.004.


Changes in extracellular kynurenic acid concentrations in rat prefrontal cortex after D-kynurenine infusion: an in vivo microdialysis study.

Ogaya T, Song Z, Ishii K, Fukushima T.

Neurochem Res. 2010 Apr;35(4):559-63. doi: 10.1007/s11064-009-0099-1.


Prenatal kynurenine exposure in rats: age-dependent changes in NMDA receptor expression and conditioned fear responding.

Pershing ML, Phenis D, Valentini V, Pocivavsek A, Lindquist DH, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016 Oct;233(21-22):3725-3735.


Elevations of endogenous kynurenic acid produce spatial working memory deficits.

Chess AC, Simoni MK, Alling TE, Bucci DJ.

Schizophr Bull. 2007 May;33(3):797-804.


Cortical kynurenine pathway metabolism: a novel target for cognitive enhancement in Schizophrenia.

Wonodi I, Schwarcz R.

Schizophr Bull. 2010 Mar;36(2):211-8. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbq002. Review.

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