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Macro and micro diversity of Clostridium difficile isolates from diverse sources and geographical locations.

Stabler RA, Dawson LF, Valiente E, Cairns MD, Martin MJ, Donahue EH, Riley TV, Songer JG, Kuijper EJ, Dingle KE, Wren BW.

PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e31559. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031559. Epub 2012 Mar 2.


Comparative analysis of an expanded Clostridium difficile reference strain collection reveals genetic diversity and evolution through six lineages.

Knetsch CW, Terveer EM, Lauber C, Gorbalenya AE, Harmanus C, Kuijper EJ, Corver J, van Leeuwen HC.

Infect Genet Evol. 2012 Oct;12(7):1577-85. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2012.06.003. Epub 2012 Jun 15.


Multilocus sequence typing analysis of human and animal Clostridium difficile isolates of various toxigenic types.

Lemee L, Dhalluin A, Pestel-Caron M, Lemeland JF, Pons JL.

J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Jun;42(6):2609-17.


Multilocus sequence typing for Clostridium difficile.

Lemée L, Pons JL.

Methods Mol Biol. 2010;646:77-90. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60327-365-7_6.


Multilocus sequence typing of Clostridium difficile.

Griffiths D, Fawley W, Kachrimanidou M, Bowden R, Crook DW, Fung R, Golubchik T, Harding RM, Jeffery KJ, Jolley KA, Kirton R, Peto TE, Rees G, Stoesser N, Vaughan A, Walker AS, Young BC, Wilcox M, Dingle KE.

J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Mar;48(3):770-8. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01796-09. Epub 2009 Dec 30.


Molecular epidemiology and resistance profiles of Clostridium difficile in a tertiary care hospital in Spain.

Weber I, Riera E, Déniz C, Pérez JL, Oliver A, Mena A.

Int J Med Microbiol. 2013 Apr;303(3):128-33. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2013.02.016. Epub 2013 Mar 22.


Presence of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype clusters related to 033, 078 and 045 in diarrhoeic calves in Germany.

Schneeberg A, Neubauer H, Schmoock G, Grossmann E, Seyboldt C.

J Med Microbiol. 2013 Aug;62(Pt 8):1190-8. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.056473-0. Epub 2013 May 2.


Sequence similarity of Clostridium difficile strains by analysis of conserved genes and genome content is reflected by their ribotype affiliation.

Kurka H, Ehrenreich A, Ludwig W, Monot M, Rupnik M, Barbut F, Indra A, Dupuy B, Liebl W.

PLoS One. 2014 Jan 23;9(1):e86535. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086535. eCollection 2014.


Carriage and acquisition rates of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized horses, including molecular characterization, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates.

Rodriguez C, Taminiau B, Brévers B, Avesani V, Van Broeck J, Leroux AA, Amory H, Delmée M, Daube G.

Vet Microbiol. 2014 Aug 6;172(1-2):309-17. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.05.013. Epub 2014 May 13.


The continually evolving Clostridium difficile species.

Cairns MD, Stabler RA, Shetty N, Wren BW.

Future Microbiol. 2012 Aug;7(8):945-57. doi: 10.2217/fmb.12.73. Review.


Investigation of Clostridium difficile interspecies relatedness using multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

Rodriguez C, Avesani V, Taminiau B, Van Broeck J, Brévers B, Delmée M, Daube G.

Vet J. 2015 Dec;206(3):349-55. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.09.001. Epub 2015 Sep 8.


Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the gene for surface layer protein, slpA, from 14 PCR ribotypes of Clostridium difficile.

Eidhin DN, Ryan AW, Doyle RM, Walsh JB, Kelleher D.

J Med Microbiol. 2006 Jan;55(Pt 1):69-83.


Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of Clostridium difficile isolates: a single-center study.

Zhou Y, Burnham CA, Hink T, Chen L, Shaikh N, Wollam A, Sodergren E, Weinstock GM, Tarr PI, Dubberke ER.

J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Dec;52(12):4260-6. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02115-14. Epub 2014 Oct 1.


Evolutionary dynamics of Clostridium difficile over short and long time scales.

He M, Sebaihia M, Lawley TD, Stabler RA, Dawson LF, Martin MJ, Holt KE, Seth-Smith HM, Quail MA, Rance R, Brooks K, Churcher C, Harris D, Bentley SD, Burrows C, Clark L, Corton C, Murray V, Rose G, Thurston S, van Tonder A, Walker D, Wren BW, Dougan G, Parkhill J.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Apr 20;107(16):7527-32. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0914322107. Epub 2010 Apr 5.


Multilocus sequence typing analysis and antibiotic resistance of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from retail meat and humans in Belgium.

Rodriguez C, Taminiau B, Avesani V, Van Broeck J, Delmée M, Daube G.

Food Microbiol. 2014 Sep;42:166-71. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2014 Apr 2.


Genomic diversity of Clostridium difficile strains.

Janezic S, Rupnik M.

Res Microbiol. 2015 May;166(4):353-60. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2015.02.002. Epub 2015 Feb 18. Review.


Clostridium difficile in Dutch animals: their presence, characteristics and similarities with human isolates.

Koene MG, Mevius D, Wagenaar JA, Harmanus C, Hensgens MP, Meetsma AM, Putirulan FF, van Bergen MA, Kuijper EJ.

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Aug;18(8):778-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03651.x. Epub 2011 Sep 15.


Comparison of repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR with PCR ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in studying the clonality of Clostridium difficile.

Pasanen T, Kotila SM, Horsma J, Virolainen A, Jalava J, Ibrahem S, Antikainen J, Mero S, Tarkka E, Vaara M, Tissari P.

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011 Feb;17(2):166-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03221.x.


Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and multilocus sequence typing reveal genetic relationships among Clostridium difficile isolates genotyped by restriction endonuclease analysis.

Marsh JW, O'Leary MM, Shutt KA, Sambol SP, Johnson S, Gerding DN, Harrison LH.

J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Feb;48(2):412-8. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01315-09. Epub 2009 Dec 2.


Clostridium difficile genotypes in piglet populations in Germany.

Schneeberg A, Neubauer H, Schmoock G, Baier S, Harlizius J, Nienhoff H, Brase K, Zimmermann S, Seyboldt C.

J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Nov;51(11):3796-803. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01440-13. Epub 2013 Sep 11.

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