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Increased levels of CD4 T-cell activation in individuals with CXCR4 using viruses in primary HIV-1 infection.

Hamlyn E, Hickling S, Porter K, Frater J, Phillips R, Robinson M, Mackie NE, Kaye S, McClure M, Fidler S; SPARTAC Investigators..

AIDS. 2012 Apr 24;26(7):887-90. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328351e721.


High CD4(+) T-cell surface CXCR4 density as a risk factor for R5 to X4 switch in the course of HIV-1 infection.

Fiser AL, Vincent T, Brieu N, Lin YL, Portalès P, Mettling C, Reynes J, Corbeau P.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Dec 15;55(5):529-35. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181f25bab.


Accelerated in vivo proliferation of memory phenotype CD4+ T-cells in human HIV-1 infection irrespective of viral chemokine co-receptor tropism.

Zhang Y, de Lara C, Worth A, Hegedus A, Laamanen K, Beverley P, Macallan D.

PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(4):e1003310. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003310. Epub 2013 Apr 18.


Alterations in mast cell function and survival following in vitro infection with human immunodeficiency viruses-1 through CXCR4.

Taub DD, Mikovits JA, Nilsson G, Schaffer EM, Key ML, Petrow-Sadowski C, Ruscetti FW.

Cell Immunol. 2004 Aug;230(2):65-80.


Engineering HIV-resistant human CD4+ T cells with CXCR4-specific zinc-finger nucleases.

Wilen CB, Wang J, Tilton JC, Miller JC, Kim KA, Rebar EJ, Sherrill-Mix SA, Patro SC, Secreto AJ, Jordan AP, Lee G, Kahn J, Aye PP, Bunnell BA, Lackner AA, Hoxie JA, Danet-Desnoyers GA, Bushman FD, Riley JL, Gregory PD, June CH, Holmes MC, Doms RW.

PLoS Pathog. 2011 Apr;7(4):e1002020. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002020. Epub 2011 Apr 14.


Naive T-cell depletion related to infection by X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in poor immunological responders to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Delobel P, Nugeyre MT, Cazabat M, Sandres-Sauné K, Pasquier C, Cuzin L, Marchou B, Massip P, Cheynier R, Barré-Sinoussi F, Izopet J, Israël N.

J Virol. 2006 Oct;80(20):10229-36.


The number of CCR5 expressing CD4+ T lymphocytes is lower in HIV-infected long-term non-progressors with viral control compared to normal progressors: a cross-sectional study.

Meijerink H, Indrati AR, van Crevel R, Joosten I, Koenen H, van der Ven AJ.

BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Dec 13;14:683. doi: 10.1186/s12879-014-0683-0.


Persistence and emergence of X4 virus in HIV infection.

Weinberger AD, Perelson AS.

Math Biosci Eng. 2011 Apr;8(2):605-26. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2011.8.605.


Differential effects of R5 and X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on CD4+ cell proliferation and activation.

Locher CP, Witt SA, Kassel R, Dowell NL, Fujimura S, Levy JA.

J Gen Virol. 2005 Apr;86(Pt 4):1171-9.


Identification of an unique CXCR4 epitope whose ligation inhibits infection by both CXCR4 and CCR5 tropic human immunodeficiency type-I viruses.

Adachi T, Tanaka R, Kodama A, Saito M, Takahashi Y, Ansari AA, Tanaka Y.

Retrovirology. 2011 Oct 22;8:84. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-8-84.


Depletion of naive CD4 T cells by CXCR4-using HIV-1 variants occurs mainly through increased T-cell death and activation.

Hazenberg MD, Otto SA, Hamann D, Roos MT, Schuitemaker H, de Boer RJ, Miedema F.

AIDS. 2003 Jul 4;17(10):1419-24.


HIV-1 coreceptor usage, transmission, and disease progression.

Philpott SM.

Curr HIV Res. 2003 Apr;1(2):217-27. Review.


Early viral load and CD4+ T cell count, but not percentage of CCR5+ or CXCR4+ CD4+ T cells, are associated with R5-to-X4 HIV type 1 virus evolution.

van Rij RP, Hazenberg MD, van Benthem BH, Otto SA, Prins M, Miedema F, Schuitemaker H.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003 May;19(5):389-98.


The presence of CXCR4-using HIV-1 prior to start of antiretroviral therapy is an independent predictor of delayed viral suppression.

Gijsbers EF, van Sighem A, Harskamp AM, Welkers MR, de Wolf F, Brinkman K, Prins JM, Schuitemaker H, van 't Wout AB, Kootstra NA.

PLoS One. 2013 Oct 1;8(10):e76255. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076255. eCollection 2013.


CXCR4 utilization is sufficient to trigger CD4+ T cell depletion in HIV-1-infected human lymphoid tissue.

Penn ML, Grivel JC, Schramm B, Goldsmith MA, Margolis L.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jan 19;96(2):663-8.


Downregulation of CCR5 on activated CD4 T cells in HIV-infected Indians.

Dubey S, Khalid M, Wesley C, Khan SA, Wanchu A, Jameel S.

J Clin Virol. 2008 Sep;43(1):25-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2008.03.026. Epub 2008 May 6.


Humanized mice dually challenged with R5 and X4 HIV-1 show preferential R5 viremia and restricted X4 infection of CCR5(+)CD4(+) T cells.

Terahara K, Ishige M, Ikeno S, Okada S, Kobayashi-Ishihara M, Ato M, Tsunetsugu-Yokota Y.

Microbes Infect. 2015 May;17(5):378-86. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2015.02.002. Epub 2015 Apr 1.


Faster HIV-1 disease progression among Brazilian individuals recently infected with CXCR4-utilizing strains.

Sucupira MC, Sanabani S, Cortes RM, Giret MT, Tomiyama H, Sauer MM, Sabino EC, Janini LM, Kallas EG, Diaz RS.

PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e30292. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030292. Epub 2012 Jan 26.

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