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Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis.

De Filippis D, Esposito G, Cirillo C, Cipriano M, De Winter BY, Scuderi C, Sarnelli G, Cuomo R, Steardo L, De Man JG, Iuvone T.

PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28159. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028159. Epub 2011 Dec 6.


Palmitoylethanolamide improves colon inflammation through an enteric glia/toll like receptor 4-dependent PPAR-α activation.

Esposito G, Capoccia E, Turco F, Palumbo I, Lu J, Steardo A, Cuomo R, Sarnelli G, Steardo L.

Gut. 2014 Aug;63(8):1300-12. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305005. Epub 2013 Sep 30.


Increased mucosal nitric oxide production in ulcerative colitis is mediated in part by the enteroglial-derived S100B protein.

Cirillo C, Sarnelli G, Esposito G, Grosso M, Petruzzelli R, Izzo P, Calì G, D'Armiento FP, Rocco A, Nardone G, Iuvone T, Steardo L, Cuomo R.

Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009 Nov;21(11):1209-e112. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2009.01346.x. Epub 2009 Jun 24.


Cannabidiol in vivo blunts beta-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1beta and iNOS expression.

Esposito G, Scuderi C, Savani C, Steardo L Jr, De Filippis D, Cottone P, Iuvone T, Cuomo V, Steardo L.

Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Aug;151(8):1272-9. Epub 2007 Jun 25.


Cannabinoids Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol differentially inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-activated NF-kappaB and interferon-beta/STAT proinflammatory pathways in BV-2 microglial cells.

Kozela E, Pietr M, Juknat A, Rimmerman N, Levy R, Vogel Z.

J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 15;285(3):1616-26. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.069294. Epub 2009 Nov 12.


Critical Role of Mast Cells and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ in the Induction of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells by Marijuana Cannabidiol In Vivo.

Hegde VL, Singh UP, Nagarkatti PS, Nagarkatti M.

J Immunol. 2015 Jun 1;194(11):5211-22. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1401844. Epub 2015 Apr 27.


Cannabidiol protects oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from inflammation-induced apoptosis by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Mecha M, Torrao AS, Mestre L, Carrillo-Salinas FJ, Mechoulam R, Guaza C.

Cell Death Dis. 2012 Jun 28;3:e331. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2012.71.


Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice.

Weiss L, Zeira M, Reich S, Har-Noy M, Mechoulam R, Slavin S, Gallily R.

Autoimmunity. 2006 Mar;39(2):143-51.


The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.

Malfait AM, Gallily R, Sumariwalla PF, Malik AS, Andreakos E, Mechoulam R, Feldmann M.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Aug 15;97(17):9561-6.


Suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine release by selective inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase in mucosal explants from patients with ulcerative colitis.

Kankuri E, Hämäläinen M, Hukkanen M, Salmenperä P, Kivilaakso E, Vapaatalo H, Moilanen E.

Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003 Feb;38(2):186-92.


Impaired expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in ulcerative colitis.

Dubuquoy L, Jansson EA, Deeb S, Rakotobe S, Karoui M, Colombel JF, Auwerx J, Pettersson S, Desreumaux P.

Gastroenterology. 2003 May;124(5):1265-76.


A novel CB receptor GPR55 and its ligands are involved in regulation of gut movement in rodents.

Lin XH, Yuece B, Li YY, Feng YJ, Feng JY, Yu LY, Li K, Li YN, Storr M.

Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011 Sep;23(9):862-e342. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2011.01742.x. Epub 2011 Jul 5.


Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in primary lymphocytes is associated with oxidative stress-dependent activation of caspase-8.

Wu HY, Chu RM, Wang CC, Lee CY, Lin SH, Jan TR.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Feb 1;226(3):260-70. Epub 2007 Sep 20.


The effects of cannabidiolic acid and cannabidiol on contractility of the gastrointestinal tract of Suncus murinus.

Cluny NL, Naylor RJ, Whittle BA, Javid FA.

Arch Pharm Res. 2011 Sep;34(9):1509-17. doi: 10.1007/s12272-011-0913-6. Epub 2011 Oct 6.


A cell permeable peptide inhibitor of NFAT inhibits macrophage cytokine expression and ameliorates experimental colitis.

Elloumi HZ, Maharshak N, Rao KN, Kobayashi T, Ryu HS, Mühlbauer M, Li F, Jobin C, Plevy SE.

PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e34172. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034172. Epub 2012 Mar 27.


A new transcription factor that regulates TNF-alpha gene expression, LITAF, is increased in intestinal tissues from patients with CD and UC.

Stucchi A, Reed K, O'Brien M, Cerda S, Andrews C, Gower A, Bushell K, Amar S, Leeman S, Becker J.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 Jul;12(7):581-7.


Cannabidiol reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular changes and inflammation in the mouse brain: an intravital microscopy study.

Ruiz-Valdepeñas L, Martínez-Orgado JA, Benito C, Millán A, Tolón RM, Romero J.

J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Jan 18;8(1):5. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-5.


Ginsenoside Re ameliorates inflammation by inhibiting the binding of lipopolysaccharide to TLR4 on macrophages.

Lee IA, Hyam SR, Jang SE, Han MJ, Kim DH.

J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Sep 26;60(38):9595-602. Epub 2012 Sep 12.


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