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The association of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism with acute brain dysfunction during critical illness*.

Adams Wilson JR, Morandi A, Girard TD, Thompson JL, Boomershine CS, Shintani AK, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP.

Crit Care Med. 2012 Mar;40(3):835-41. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318236f62d.


Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels at admission as predictors of duration of acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients.

McGrane S, Girard TD, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Woodworth A, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP.

Crit Care. 2011;15(2):R78. doi: 10.1186/cc10070. Epub 2011 Mar 2.


Association between endothelial dysfunction and acute brain dysfunction during critical illness.

Hughes CG, Morandi A, Girard TD, Riedel B, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Pun BT, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP.

Anesthesiology. 2013 Mar;118(3):631-9. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31827bd193.


Effect of sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam on acute brain dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients: the MENDS randomized controlled trial.

Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Herr DL, Maze M, Girard TD, Miller RR, Shintani AK, Thompson JL, Jackson JC, Deppen SA, Stiles RA, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW.

JAMA. 2007 Dec 12;298(22):2644-53.


Plasma tryptophan and tyrosine levels are independent risk factors for delirium in critically ill patients.

Pandharipande PP, Morandi A, Adams JR, Girard TD, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Ely EW.

Intensive Care Med. 2009 Nov;35(11):1886-92. doi: 10.1007/s00134-009-1573-6. Epub 2009 Jul 9.


The tryptophan depletion theory in delirium: not confirmed in elderly hip fracture patients.

de Jonghe A, van Munster BC, Fekkes D, van Oosten HE, de Rooij SE.

Psychosomatics. 2012 May-Jun;53(3):236-43. doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2011.09.009. Epub 2012 Mar 27.


Delirium as a predictor of mortality in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit.

Ely EW, Shintani A, Truman B, Speroff T, Gordon SM, Harrell FE Jr, Inouye SK, Bernard GR, Dittus RS.

JAMA. 2004 Apr 14;291(14):1753-62.


The kynurenine pathway: a metabolinomic pathway for intensive care unit delirium?*.

Devlin JW, Skrobik Y.

Crit Care Med. 2012 Mar;40(3):1001-2. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31823b8e57. No abstract available.


Delirium and coma evaluated in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit in Japan: a multi-institutional prospective observational study.

Tsuruta R, Oda Y, Shintani A, Nunomiya S, Hashimoto S, Nakagawa T, Oida Y, Miyazaki D, Yabe S; Japanese Epidemiology of Delirium in ICUs (JEDI) Study Investigators..

J Crit Care. 2014 Jun;29(3):472.e1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.01.021. Epub 2014 Feb 3.


Baseline acetylcholinesterase activity and serotonin plasma levels are not associated with delirium in critically ill patients.

Tomasi CD, Salluh J, Soares M, Vuolo F, Zanatta F, Constantino Lde S, Zugno AI, Ritter C, Dal-Pizzol F.

Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2015 Apr-Jun;27(2):170-7. doi: 10.5935/0103-507X.20150029. English, Portuguese.


Endothelial Activation and Blood-Brain Barrier Injury as Risk Factors for Delirium in Critically Ill Patients.

Hughes CG, Pandharipande PP, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Ware LB, Ely EW, Girard TD.

Crit Care Med. 2016 Sep;44(9):e809-17. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001739.


Burst suppression on processed electroencephalography as a predictor of postcoma delirium in mechanically ventilated ICU patients.

Andresen JM, Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Davidson MA, Ely EW, Watson PL.

Crit Care Med. 2014 Oct;42(10):2244-51. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000522.


Excessive tryptophan catabolism along the kynurenine pathway precedes ongoing sepsis in critically ill patients.

Zeden JP, Fusch G, Holtfreter B, Schefold JC, Reinke P, Domanska G, Haas JP, Gruendling M, Westerholt A, Schuett C.

Anaesth Intensive Care. 2010 Mar;38(2):307-16.


Tryptophan metabolism to kynurenine is a potential novel contributor to hypotension in human sepsis.

Changsirivathanathamrong D, Wang Y, Rajbhandari D, Maghzal GJ, Mak WM, Woolfe C, Duflou J, Gebski V, dos Remedios CG, Celermajer DS, Stocker R.

Crit Care Med. 2011 Dec;39(12):2678-83. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31822827f2.


The impact of acute brain dysfunction in the outcomes of mechanically ventilated cancer patients.

Almeida IC, Soares M, Bozza FA, Shinotsuka CR, Bujokas R, Souza-Dantas VC, Ely EW, Salluh JI.

PLoS One. 2014 Jan 22;9(1):e85332. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085332. eCollection 2014.


Interleukin 6 and apolipoprotein E as predictors of acute brain dysfunction and survival in critical care patients.

Alexander SA, Ren D, Gunn SR, Kochanek PM, Tate J, Ikonomovic M, Conley YP.

Am J Crit Care. 2014 Jan;23(1):49-57. doi: 10.4037/ajcc2014578.


The confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit in patients with cirrhosis.

Orman ES, Perkins A, Ghabril M, Khan BA, Chalasani N, Boustani MA.

Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Aug;30(4):1063-71. doi: 10.1007/s11011-015-9679-8. Epub 2015 May 7.


Diurnal sedative changes during intensive care: impact on liberation from mechanical ventilation and delirium.

Seymour CW, Pandharipande PP, Koestner T, Hudson LD, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Ely EW, Girard TD.

Crit Care Med. 2012 Oct;40(10):2788-96.


Costs associated with delirium in mechanically ventilated patients.

Milbrandt EB, Deppen S, Harrison PL, Shintani AK, Speroff T, Stiles RA, Truman B, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW.

Crit Care Med. 2004 Apr;32(4):955-62.


Delirium in mechanically ventilated patients: validity and reliability of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU).

Ely EW, Inouye SK, Bernard GR, Gordon S, Francis J, May L, Truman B, Speroff T, Gautam S, Margolin R, Hart RP, Dittus R.

JAMA. 2001 Dec 5;286(21):2703-10.


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