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Genetic variability in the metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL).

Ter-Minassian M, Asomaning K, Zhao Y, Chen F, Su L, Carmella SG, Lin X, Hecht SS, Christiani DC.

Int J Cancer. 2012 Mar 15;130(6):1338-46. doi: 10.1002/ijc.26162. Epub 2011 Aug 3.


Analysis of human urine for pyridine-N-oxide metabolites of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen.

Carmella SG, Borukhova A, Akerkar SA, Hecht SS.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997 Feb;6(2):113-20.


Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

Anderson KE, Carmella SG, Ye M, Bliss RL, Le C, Murphy L, Hecht SS.

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 Mar 7;93(5):378-81.


Direct analysis of tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK and its metabolite NNAL in human urine by LC-MS/MS: evidence of linkage to methylated DNA lesions.

Hu CW, Hsu YW, Chen JL, Tam LM, Chao MR.

Arch Toxicol. 2014 Feb;88(2):291-9. doi: 10.1007/s00204-013-1137-y. Epub 2013 Sep 22.


Analysis of total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in human urine.

Carmella SG, Han S, Fristad A, Yang Y, Hecht SS.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Nov;12(11 Pt 1):1257-61.


Exposure to the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokers from 3 populations with different risks of lung cancer.

Derby KS, Cuthrell K, Caberto C, Carmella S, Murphy SE, Hecht SS, Le Marchand L.

Int J Cancer. 2009 Nov 15;125(10):2418-24. doi: 10.1002/ijc.24585.


Tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in smokers in the United States: NHANES 2007-2008.

Xia Y, Bernert JT, Jain RB, Ashley DL, Pirkle JL.

Biomarkers. 2011 Mar;16(2):112-9. doi: 10.3109/1354750X.2010.533288. Epub 2010 Nov 29.


A new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in urine.

Bhat SH, Gelhaus SL, Mesaros C, Vachani A, Blair IA.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2011 Jan 15;25(1):115-21. doi: 10.1002/rcm.4824.


Urinary levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolites in relation to lung cancer development in two prospective cohorts of cigarette smokers.

Yuan JM, Koh WP, Murphy SE, Fan Y, Wang R, Carmella SG, Han S, Wickham K, Gao YT, Yu MC, Hecht SS.

Cancer Res. 2009 Apr 1;69(7):2990-5. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4330. Epub 2009 Mar 24.


Quantitation of urinary metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen after smoking cessation.

Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Chen M, Dor Koch JF, Miller AT, Murphy SE, Jensen JA, Zimmerman CL, Hatsukami DK.

Cancer Res. 1999 Feb 1;59(3):590-6.


Differences in the urinary metabolites of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in black and white smokers.

Richie JP Jr, Carmella SG, Muscat JE, Scott DG, Akerkar SA, Hecht SS.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997 Oct;6(10):783-90.


Effects of watercress consumption on metabolism of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in smokers.

Hecht SS, Chung FL, Richie JP Jr, Akerkar SA, Borukhova A, Skowronski L, Carmella SG.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1995 Dec;4(8):877-84.


Biomonitoring of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related exposure to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK).

Michael Meger Irmtrud Meger-Kossien Kirsten Riedel Gerhard Scherer.

Biomarkers. 2000;5(1):33-45. doi: 10.1080/135475000230523.


High throughput liquid and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assays for tobacco-specific nitrosamine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites associated with lung cancer in smokers.

Carmella SG, Ming X, Olvera N, Brookmeyer C, Yoder A, Hecht SS.

Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Aug 19;26(8):1209-17. doi: 10.1021/tx400121n. Epub 2013 Jul 24.


Urine cotinine underestimates exposure to the tobacco-derived lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in passive compared with active smokers.

Benowitz N, Goniewicz ML, Eisner MD, Lazcano-Ponce E, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Havel C, Jacob P 3rd.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Nov;19(11):2795-800. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0497. Epub 2010 Aug 30.


Biotransformation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in lung tissue from mouse, rat, hamster, and man.

Richter E, Engl J, Friesenegger S, Tricker AR.

Chem Res Toxicol. 2009 Jun;22(6):1008-17. doi: 10.1021/tx800461d.


Urinary metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking hospitality workers.

Tulunay OE, Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Zhang Y, Lemmonds C, Murphy S, Hatsukami DK.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 May;14(5):1283-6.

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