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Ginseng and ginsenoside Re do not improve β-cell function or insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes.

Reeds DN, Patterson BW, Okunade A, Holloszy JO, Polonsky KS, Klein S.

Diabetes Care. 2011 May;34(5):1071-6. doi: 10.2337/dc10-2299. Epub 2011 Mar 16.


Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component.

Attele AS, Zhou YP, Xie JT, Wu JA, Zhang L, Dey L, Pugh W, Rue PA, Polonsky KS, Yuan CS.

Diabetes. 2002 Jun;51(6):1851-8.


HbA(1c) diagnostic categories and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese adolescents.

Sjaarda LA, Michaliszyn SF, Lee S, Tfayli H, Bacha F, Farchoukh L, Arslanian SA.

Diabetes Care. 2012 Dec;35(12):2559-63. doi: 10.2337/dc12-0747. Epub 2012 Aug 21.


Plasma nonesterified Fatty Acid intolerance and hyperglycemia are associated with intravenous lipid-induced impairment of insulin sensitivity and disposition index.

Carpentier AC, Bourbonnais A, Frisch F, Giacca A, Lewis GF.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Mar;95(3):1256-64. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-1932. Epub 2010 Jan 22.


Declining β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity with escalating OGTT 2-h glucose concentrations in the nondiabetic through the diabetic range in overweight youth.

Burns SF, Bacha F, Lee SJ, Tfayli H, Gungor N, Arslanian SA.

Diabetes Care. 2011 Sep;34(9):2033-40. doi: 10.2337/dc11-0423. Epub 2011 Jul 12.


Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test.

Solomon TP, Malin SK, Karstoft K, Knudsen SH, Haus JM, Laye MJ, Pedersen M, Pedersen BK, Kirwan JP.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Nov 1;307(9):E822-9. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00269.2014. Epub 2014 Sep 2.


One-hour plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT: what does it tell about β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese children?

Tfayli H, Lee SJ, Bacha F, Arslanian S.

Pediatr Diabetes. 2011 Sep;12(6):572-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2011.00745.x. Epub 2011 Apr 6.


Valsartan improves {beta}-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism: a randomized controlled trial.

van der Zijl NJ, Moors CC, Goossens GH, Hermans MM, Blaak EE, Diamant M.

Diabetes Care. 2011 Apr;34(4):845-51. doi: 10.2337/dc10-2224. Epub 2011 Feb 17.


Persistence of pre-diabetes in overweight and obese Hispanic children: association with progressive insulin resistance, poor beta-cell function, and increasing visceral fat.

Goran MI, Lane C, Toledo-Corral C, Weigensberg MJ.

Diabetes. 2008 Nov;57(11):3007-12. doi: 10.2337/db08-0445. Epub 2008 Aug 4.


Pancreatic β-cell function is a stronger predictor of changes in glycemic control after an aerobic exercise intervention than insulin sensitivity.

Solomon TP, Malin SK, Karstoft K, Kashyap SR, Haus JM, Kirwan JP.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct;98(10):4176-86. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2232. Epub 2013 Aug 21.


Effect of pinitol treatment on insulin action in subjects with insulin resistance.

Davis A, Christiansen M, Horowitz JF, Klein S, Hellerstein MK, Ostlund RE Jr.

Diabetes Care. 2000 Jul;23(7):1000-5.


Circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 is elevated in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes and correlates with muscle and hepatic insulin resistance.

Chavez AO, Molina-Carrion M, Abdul-Ghani MA, Folli F, Defronzo RA, Tripathy D.

Diabetes Care. 2009 Aug;32(8):1542-6. doi: 10.2337/dc09-0684. Epub 2009 Jun 1.


No Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D Treatment on β-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, or Glucose Homeostasis in Subjects With Abnormal Glucose Tolerance: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Wagner H, Alvarsson M, Mannheimer B, Degerblad M, Östenson CG.

Diabetes Care. 2016 Mar;39(3):345-52. doi: 10.2337/dc15-1057. Epub 2016 Jan 19.


Short-term intensive therapy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes partially restores both insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in subjects with long-term remission.

Hu Y, Li L, Xu Y, Yu T, Tong G, Huang H, Bi Y, Weng J, Zhu D.

Diabetes Care. 2011 Aug;34(8):1848-53. doi: 10.2337/dc10-2105. Epub 2011 Jun 16.


Improvement of insulin resistance by panax ginseng in fructose-rich chow-fed rats.

Liu TP, Liu IM, Cheng JT.

Horm Metab Res. 2005 Mar;37(3):146-51.


Ectopic fat storage in the pancreas, liver, and abdominal fat depots: impact on β-cell function in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism.

van der Zijl NJ, Goossens GH, Moors CC, van Raalte DH, Muskiet MH, Pouwels PJ, Blaak EE, Diamant M.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):459-67. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1722. Epub 2010 Nov 17.


The Efficacy of Ginseng-Related Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Gui QF, Xu ZR, Xu KY, Yang YM.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Feb;95(6):e2584. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002584. Review.

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