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Activin A, a product of fetal Leydig cells, is a unique paracrine regulator of Sertoli cell proliferation and fetal testis cord expansion.

Archambeault DR, Yao HH.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jun 8;107(23):10526-31. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1000318107. Epub 2010 May 24.


Adult testicular dysgenesis of Inhba conditional knockout mice may also be caused by disruption of cross-talk between Leydig cells and germ cells.

Sun Z, Li Z, Zhang Y.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 31;107(35):E135; author reply E136. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1008771107. Epub 2010 Aug 5. No abstract available.


Activin A balances Sertoli and germ cell proliferation in the fetal mouse testis.

Mendis SH, Meachem SJ, Sarraj MA, Loveland KL.

Biol Reprod. 2011 Feb;84(2):379-91. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.110.086231. Epub 2010 Oct 6.


Testicular somatic cells, not gonocytes, are the major source of functional activin A during testis morphogenesis.

Archambeault DR, Tomaszewski J, Childs AJ, Anderson RA, Yao HH.

Endocrinology. 2011 Nov;152(11):4358-67. doi: 10.1210/en.2011-1288. Epub 2011 Sep 27.


Loss of smad4 in Sertoli and Leydig cells leads to testicular dysgenesis and hemorrhagic tumor formation in mice.

Archambeault DR, Yao HH.

Biol Reprod. 2014 Mar 20;90(3):62. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.113.111393. Print 2014 Mar.


Testicular expression of inhibin and activin subunits and follistatin in the rat and human fetus and neonate and during postnatal development in the rat.

Majdic G, McNeilly AS, Sharpe RM, Evans LR, Groome NP, Saunders PT.

Endocrinology. 1997 May;138(5):2136-47.


Immunolocalization of inhibin/activin subunits in the shiba goat fetal, neonatal, and adult testes.

Weng Q, Medan MS, Ren L, Watanabe G, Arai KY, Taya K.

J Reprod Dev. 2005 Aug;51(4):521-6.


Activin bioactivity affects germ cell differentiation in the postnatal mouse testis in vivo.

Mithraprabhu S, Mendis S, Meachem SJ, Tubino L, Matzuk MM, Brown CW, Loveland KL.

Biol Reprod. 2010 May;82(5):980-90. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.109.079855. Epub 2010 Feb 3.


Immunolocalization of inhibin and activin alpha and betaB subunits and expression of corresponding messenger RNAs in the human adult testis.

Marchetti C, Hamdane M, Mitchell V, Mayo K, Devisme L, Rigot JM, Beauvillain JC, Hermand E, Defossez A.

Biol Reprod. 2003 Jan;68(1):230-5.


Fetal testis dysgenesis and compromised Leydig cell function in Tgfbr3 (beta glycan) knockout mice.

Sarraj MA, Escalona RM, Umbers A, Chua HK, Small C, Griswold M, Loveland K, Findlay JK, Stenvers KL.

Biol Reprod. 2010 Jan;82(1):153-62. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.109.078766. Epub 2009 Aug 19.


Five azacytidine, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, specifically inhibits testicular cord formation and Sertoli cell differentiation in vitro.

Mizukami T, Kanai Y, Fujisawa M, Kanai-Azuma M, Kurohmaru M, Hayashi Y.

Mol Reprod Dev. 2008 Jun;75(6):1002-10.


Localization of inhibin/activin subunits in the testis of adult nonhuman primates and men.

Vliegen MK, Schlatt S, Weinbauer GF, Bergmann M, Groome NP, Nieschlag E.

Cell Tissue Res. 1993 Aug;273(2):261-8.


Paracrine interaction in testicular somatic cells.

Konrad L, Weber MA, Groos S, Albrecht M, Aumüller G.

Ital J Anat Embryol. 1998;103(4 Suppl 1):139-52.


Immunolocalisation and expression of Smad2 and Smad4 proteins in dog testis during postnatal development.

Zhang XJ, He JP, Wen XX, Zhao L.

Andrologia. 2011 Aug;43(4):254-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2010.01062.x. Epub 2011 Mar 23.


Age-dependent activin receptor expression pinpoints activin A as a physiological regulator of rat Sertoli cell proliferation.

Fragale A, Puglisi R, Morena AR, Stefanini M, Boitani C.

Mol Hum Reprod. 2001 Dec;7(12):1107-14.


Hormonal regulation of beta-endorphin in the testis.

Fabbri A, Dufau ML.

J Steroid Biochem. 1988;30(1-6):347-52.


Wt1 is involved in leydig cell steroid hormone biosynthesis by regulating paracrine factor expression in mice.

Chen M, Wang X, Wang Y, Zhang L, Xu B, Lv L, Cui X, Li W, Gao F.

Biol Reprod. 2014 Apr 3;90(4):71. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.113.114702. Print 2014 Apr.


Purification and Transcriptomic Analysis of Mouse Fetal Leydig Cells Reveals Candidate Genes for Specification of Gonadal Steroidogenic Cells.

McClelland KS, Bell K, Larney C, Harley VR, Sinclair AH, Oshlack A, Koopman P, Bowles J.

Biol Reprod. 2015 Jun;92(6):145. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.115.128918. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

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