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Increased anxiety during anticipation of unpredictable aversive stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder but not in generalized anxiety disorder.

Grillon C, Pine DS, Lissek S, Rabin S, Bonne O, Vythilingam M.

Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Jul 1;66(1):47-53. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.12.028. Epub 2009 Feb 12.


Increased anxiety during anticipation of unpredictable but not predictable aversive stimuli as a psychophysiologic marker of panic disorder.

Grillon C, Lissek S, Rabin S, McDowell D, Dvir S, Pine DS.

Am J Psychiatry. 2008 Jul;165(7):898-904. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07101581. Epub 2008 Mar 17.


Conditioned fear and extinction learning performance and its association with psychiatric symptoms in active duty Marines.

Acheson DT, Geyer MA, Baker DG, Nievergelt CM, Yurgil K, Risbrough VB; MRS-II Team.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Jan;51:495-505. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.09.030. Epub 2014 Oct 7.


Anxious responses to predictable and unpredictable aversive events.

Grillon C, Baas JP, Lissek S, Smith K, Milstein J.

Behav Neurosci. 2004 Oct;118(5):916-24.


Distinct responses to predictable and unpredictable threat in anxiety pathologies: effect of panic attack.

Grillon C, O'Connell K, Lieberman L, Alvarez G, Geraci M, Pine DS, Ernst M.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017 Oct;2(7):575-581. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2016.08.005.


Prospective prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms using fear potentiated auditory startle responses.

Pole N, Neylan TC, Otte C, Henn-Hasse C, Metzler TJ, Marmar CR.

Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Feb 1;65(3):235-40. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.07.015. Epub 2008 Aug 22.


Measuring anxious responses to predictable and unpredictable threat in children and adolescents.

Schmitz A, Merikangas K, Swendsen H, Cui L, Heaton L, Grillon C.

J Exp Child Psychol. 2011 Oct;110(2):159-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.02.014. Epub 2011 Mar 26.


Acute hydrocortisone treatment increases anxiety but not fear in healthy volunteers: a fear-potentiated startle study.

Grillon C, Heller R, Hirschhorn E, Kling MA, Pine DS, Schulkin J, Vythilingam M.

Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Mar 15;69(6):549-55. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.12.013. Epub 2011 Jan 31.


Tools for translational neuroscience: PTSD is associated with heightened fear responses using acoustic startle but not skin conductance measures.

Glover EM, Phifer JE, Crain DF, Norrholm SD, Davis M, Bradley B, Ressler KJ, Jovanovic T.

Depress Anxiety. 2011 Dec 21;28(12):1058-66. doi: 10.1002/da.20880. Epub 2011 Sep 2.


The benzodiazepine alprazolam dissociates contextual fear from cued fear in humans as assessed by fear-potentiated startle.

Grillon C, Baas JM, Pine DS, Lissek S, Lawley M, Ellis V, Levine J.

Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Oct 1;60(7):760-6. Epub 2006 Apr 21.


Two-week treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram reduces contextual anxiety but not cued fear in healthy volunteers: a fear-potentiated startle study.

Grillon C, Chavis C, Covington MF, Pine DS.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Mar;34(4):964-71. doi: 10.1038/npp.2008.141. Epub 2008 Sep 17.


Behavioral and central correlates of contextual fear learning and contextual modulation of cued fear in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Steiger F, Nees F, Wicking M, Lang S, Flor H.

Int J Psychophysiol. 2015 Dec;98(3 Pt 2):584-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.06.009. Epub 2015 Jul 3.


Startle response to unpredictable threat in comorbid panic disorder and alcohol dependence.

Gorka SM, Nelson BD, Shankman SA.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Sep 1;132(1-2):216-22. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.003. Epub 2013 Mar 7.


Startle reactivity and anxiety disorders: aversive conditioning, context, and neurobiology.

Grillon C.

Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Nov 15;52(10):958-75. Review.


Autonomic and respiratory characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder and panic disorder.

Blechert J, Michael T, Grossman P, Lajtman M, Wilhelm FH.

Psychosom Med. 2007 Dec;69(9):935-43. Epub 2007 Nov 8.


Elevated fear conditioning to socially relevant unconditioned stimuli in social anxiety disorder.

Lissek S, Levenson J, Biggs AL, Johnson LL, Ameli R, Pine DS, Grillon C.

Am J Psychiatry. 2008 Jan;165(1):124-32. Epub 2007 Nov 15.


Acute stress disorder versus chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: inhibition of fear as a function of time since trauma.

Jovanovic T, Sakoman AJ, Kozarić-Kovačić D, Meštrović AH, Duncan EJ, Davis M, Norrholm SD.

Depress Anxiety. 2013 Mar;30(3):217-24. doi: 10.1002/da.21991. Epub 2012 Aug 20.


Dark-enhanced startle responses and heart rate variability in a traumatized civilian sample: putative sex-specific correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder.

Kamkwalala A, Norrholm SD, Poole JM, Brown A, Donley S, Duncan E, Bradley B, Ressler KJ, Jovanovic T.

Psychosom Med. 2012 Feb-Mar;74(2):153-9. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e318240803a. Epub 2012 Jan 27.

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