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Polysialic acid, a glycan with highly restricted expression, is found on human and murine leukocytes and modulates immune responses.

Drake PM, Nathan JK, Stock CM, Chang PV, Muench MO, Nakata D, Reader JR, Gip P, Golden KP, Weinhold B, Gerardy-Schahn R, Troy FA 2nd, Bertozzi CR.

J Immunol. 2008 Nov 15;181(10):6850-8.


Polysialic acid/neural cell adhesion molecule modulates the formation of ductular reactions in liver injury.

Tsuchiya A, Lu WY, Weinhold B, Boulter L, Stutchfield BM, Williams MJ, Guest RV, Minnis-Lyons SE, MacKinnon AC, Schwarzer D, Ichida T, Nomoto M, Aoyagi Y, Gerardy-Schahn R, Forbes SJ.

Hepatology. 2014 Nov;60(5):1727-40. doi: 10.1002/hep.27099. Epub 2014 Sep 29.


Soluble polysialylated NCAM: a novel player of the innate immune system in the lung.

Ulm C, Saffarzadeh M, Mahavadi P, Müller S, Prem G, Saboor F, Simon P, Middendorff R, Geyer H, Henneke I, Bayer N, Rinné S, Lütteke T, Böttcher-Friebertshäuser E, Gerardy-Schahn R, Schwarzer D, Mühlenhoff M, Preissner KT, Günther A, Geyer R, Galuska SP.

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013 Oct;70(19):3695-708. doi: 10.1007/s00018-013-1342-0. Epub 2013 Apr 26.


Expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule and polysialic acid in human neuroblastoma cell lines.

Valentiner U, Mühlenhoff M, Lehmann U, Hildebrandt H, Schumacher U.

Int J Oncol. 2011 Aug;39(2):417-24. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2011.1038. Epub 2011 May 10.


Polysialic acid modification of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 in human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

Werneburg S, Buettner FF, Mühlenhoff M, Hildebrandt H.

Stem Cell Res. 2015 May;14(3):339-46. doi: 10.1016/j.scr.2015.03.001. Epub 2015 Mar 21.


Polysialic acid controls NCAM-induced differentiation of neuronal precursors into calretinin-positive olfactory bulb interneurons.

Röckle I, Seidenfaden R, Weinhold B, Mühlenhoff M, Gerardy-Schahn R, Hildebrandt H.

Dev Neurobiol. 2008 Aug;68(9):1170-84. doi: 10.1002/dneu.20649.


Impact of the polysialyltransferases ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV on polysialic acid synthesis during postnatal mouse brain development.

Oltmann-Norden I, Galuska SP, Hildebrandt H, Geyer R, Gerardy-Schahn R, Geyer H, Mühlenhoff M.

J Biol Chem. 2008 Jan 18;283(3):1463-71. Epub 2007 Nov 28.


Ammonia inhibits neural cell adhesion molecule polysialylation in Chinese hamster ovary and small cell lung cancer cells.

Zanghi JA, Mendoza TP, Knop RH, Miller WM.

J Cell Physiol. 1998 Nov;177(2):248-63.


Genetic ablation of polysialic acid causes severe neurodevelopmental defects rescued by deletion of the neural cell adhesion molecule.

Weinhold B, Seidenfaden R, Röckle I, Mühlenhoff M, Schertzinger F, Conzelmann S, Marth JD, Gerardy-Schahn R, Hildebrandt H.

J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 30;280(52):42971-7. Epub 2005 Nov 2.


Polysialic acid on SynCAM 1 in NG2 cells and on neuropilin-2 in microglia is confined to intracellular pools that are rapidly depleted upon stimulation.

Werneburg S, Mühlenhoff M, Stangel M, Hildebrandt H.

Glia. 2015 Jul;63(7):1240-55. doi: 10.1002/glia.22815. Epub 2015 Mar 10.


Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons.

Park KH, Yeo SW, Troy FA 2nd.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Oct 17;453(2):282-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.05.035. Epub 2014 May 17.


Changes in polysialic acid expression on myeloid cells during differentiation and recruitment to sites of inflammation: role in phagocytosis.

Stamatos NM, Zhang L, Jokilammi A, Finne J, Chen WH, El-Maarouf A, Cross AS, Hankey KG.

Glycobiology. 2014 Sep;24(9):864-79. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwu050. Epub 2014 May 27.


Dissecting polysialic acid and NCAM functions in brain development.

Hildebrandt H, Mühlenhoff M, Weinhold B, Gerardy-Schahn R.

J Neurochem. 2007 Nov;103 Suppl 1:56-64. Review.


Enzyme-dependent variations in the polysialylation of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in vivo.

Galuska SP, Geyer R, Gerardy-Schahn R, Mühlenhoff M, Geyer H.

J Biol Chem. 2008 Jan 4;283(1):17-28. Epub 2007 Nov 6.


Polysialic acid on neuropilin-2 is exclusively synthesized by the polysialyltransferase ST8SiaIV and attached to mucin-type o-glycans located between the b2 and c domain.

Rollenhagen M, Buettner FF, Reismann M, Jirmo AC, Grove M, Behrens GM, Gerardy-Schahn R, Hanisch FG, Mühlenhoff M.

J Biol Chem. 2013 Aug 9;288(32):22880-92. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.463927. Epub 2013 Jun 25.


Synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 is a target for polysialylation in postnatal mouse brain.

Galuska SP, Rollenhagen M, Kaup M, Eggers K, Oltmann-Norden I, Schiff M, Hartmann M, Weinhold B, Hildebrandt H, Geyer R, Mühlenhoff M, Geyer H.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jun 1;107(22):10250-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0912103107. Epub 2010 May 17.


NCAM polysialylation during adherence transitions: live cell monitoring using an antibody-mimetic EGFP-endosialidase and the viability dye DRAQ7.

Smith PJ, Furon E, Wiltshire M, Chappell S, Patterson LH, Shnyder SD, Falconer RA, Errington RJ.

Cytometry A. 2013 Jul;83(7):659-71. doi: 10.1002/cyto.a.22306. Epub 2013 May 28.


The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM regulates neuritogenesis by multiple mechanisms of interaction.

Seidenfaden R, Krauter A, Hildebrandt H.

Neurochem Int. 2006 Jul;49(1):1-11. Epub 2006 Feb 13.


Polysialic acid: biosynthesis, novel functions and applications.

Colley KJ, Kitajima K, Sato C.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Nov-Dec;49(6):498-532. doi: 10.3109/10409238.2014.976606. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review.


Structural and functional impairments of polysialic acid by a mutated polysialyltransferase found in schizophrenia.

Isomura R, Kitajima K, Sato C.

J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 17;286(24):21535-45. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.221143. Epub 2011 Apr 4.

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