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AMPK and PPARdelta agonists are exercise mimetics.

Narkar VA, Downes M, Yu RT, Embler E, Wang YX, Banayo E, Mihaylova MM, Nelson MC, Zou Y, Juguilon H, Kang H, Shaw RJ, Evans RM.

Cell. 2008 Aug 8;134(3):405-15. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.06.051. Epub 2008 Jul 31.


The exercise pill--too good to be true?

Goodyear LJ.

N Engl J Med. 2008 Oct 23;359(17):1842-4. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcibr0806723. No abstract available.


Combined pharmacological activation of AMPK and PPARδ potentiates the effects of exercise in trained mice.

Manio MC, Inoue K, Fujitani M, Matsumura S, Fushiki T.

Physiol Rep. 2016 Mar;4(5). pii: e12625. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12625.


Activity of LKB1 and AMPK-related kinases in skeletal muscle: effects of contraction, phenformin, and AICAR.

Sakamoto K, Göransson O, Hardie DG, Alessi DR.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug;287(2):E310-7. Epub 2004 Apr 6.


α2 isoform-specific activation of 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleoside at a physiological level activates glucose transport and increases glucose transporter 4 in mouse skeletal muscle.

Nakano M, Hamada T, Hayashi T, Yonemitsu S, Miyamoto L, Toyoda T, Tanaka S, Masuzaki H, Ebihara K, Ogawa Y, Hosoda K, Inoue G, Yoshimasa Y, Otaka A, Fushiki T, Nakao K.

Metabolism. 2006 Mar;55(3):300-8.


Role of AMPKalpha2 in basal, training-, and AICAR-induced GLUT4, hexokinase II, and mitochondrial protein expression in mouse muscle.

Jørgensen SB, Treebak JT, Viollet B, Schjerling P, Vaulont S, Wojtaszewski JF, Richter EA.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan;292(1):E331-9. Epub 2006 Sep 5.


AMPK activation with AICAR provokes an acute fall in plasma [K+].

Zheng D, Perianayagam A, Lee DH, Brannan MD, Yang LE, Tellalian D, Chen P, Lemieux K, Marette A, Youn JH, McDonough AA.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008 Jan;294(1):C126-35. Epub 2007 Nov 14.


Effects of AICAR and exercise on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, signaling, and GLUT-4 content in rat muscles.

Jessen N, Pold R, Buhl ES, Jensen LS, Schmitz O, Lund S.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003 Apr;94(4):1373-9. Epub 2002 Dec 20.


Activation of AMPK is essential for AICAR-induced glucose uptake by skeletal muscle but not adipocytes.

Sakoda H, Ogihara T, Anai M, Fujishiro M, Ono H, Onishi Y, Katagiri H, Abe M, Fukushima Y, Shojima N, Inukai K, Kikuchi M, Oka Y, Asano T.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jun;282(6):E1239-44.


Endurance factors improve hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory in mice.

Kobilo T, Yuan C, van Praag H.

Learn Mem. 2011 Jan 18;18(2):103-7. doi: 10.1101/lm.2001611. Print 2011 Feb.


Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

Richter EA, Kiens B, Wojtaszewski JF.

Cell Metab. 2008 Aug;8(2):96-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2008.07.004.


Chronic AMPK stimulation attenuates adaptive signaling in dystrophic skeletal muscle.

Ljubicic V, Khogali S, Renaud JM, Jasmin BJ.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012 Jan 1;302(1):C110-21. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00183.2011. Epub 2011 Sep 21.


Small molecules can have big effects on endurance.

Baar K, Hardie DG.

Nat Chem Biol. 2008 Oct;4(10):583-4. doi: 10.1038/nchembio1008-583. No abstract available.


AMPK regulates basal skeletal muscle capillarization and VEGF expression, but is not necessary for the angiogenic response to exercise.

Zwetsloot KA, Westerkamp LM, Holmes BF, Gavin TP.

J Physiol. 2008 Dec 15;586(24):6021-35. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.159871. Epub 2008 Oct 27.


Role of AMPK and PPARγ1 in exercise-induced lipoprotein lipase in skeletal muscle.

Sasaki T, Nakata R, Inoue H, Shimizu M, Inoue J, Sato R.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May 1;306(9):E1085-92. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00691.2013. Epub 2014 Mar 18.


AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates transcription factors of the CREB family.

Thomson DM, Herway ST, Fillmore N, Kim H, Brown JD, Barrow JR, Winder WW.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Feb;104(2):429-38. Epub 2007 Dec 6.


Lack of AMPKalpha2 enhances pyruvate dehydrogenase activity during exercise.

Klein DK, Pilegaard H, Treebak JT, Jensen TE, Viollet B, Schjerling P, Wojtaszewski JF.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov;293(5):E1242-9. Epub 2007 Aug 21.


Alpha2-AMPK activity is not essential for an increase in fatty acid oxidation during low-intensity exercise.

Miura S, Kai Y, Kamei Y, Bruce CR, Kubota N, Febbraio MA, Kadowaki T, Ezaki O.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jan;296(1):E47-55. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.90690.2008. Epub 2008 Oct 21.


Knockout of the alpha2 but not alpha1 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase isoform abolishes 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranosidebut not contraction-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

Jørgensen SB, Viollet B, Andreelli F, Frøsig C, Birk JB, Schjerling P, Vaulont S, Richter EA, Wojtaszewski JF.

J Biol Chem. 2004 Jan 9;279(2):1070-9. Epub 2003 Oct 21.

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