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Inhibition of growth hormone signaling by the fasting-induced hormone FGF21.

Inagaki T, Lin VY, Goetz R, Mohammadi M, Mangelsdorf DJ, Kliewer SA.

Cell Metab. 2008 Jul;8(1):77-83. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2008.05.006.


Growth hormone stimulates transcription of the fibroblast growth factor 21 gene in the liver through the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5.

Yu J, Zhao L, Wang A, Eleswarapu S, Ge X, Chen D, Jiang H.

Endocrinology. 2012 Feb;153(2):750-8. doi: 10.1210/en.2011-1591. Epub 2011 Dec 13.


SIRT1 regulates adaptive response of the growth hormone--insulin-like growth factor-I axis under fasting conditions in liver.

Yamamoto M, Iguchi G, Fukuoka H, Suda K, Bando H, Takahashi M, Nishizawa H, Seino S, Takahashi Y.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Sep 10;110(37):14948-53. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1220606110. Epub 2013 Aug 26.


The starvation hormone, fibroblast growth factor-21, extends lifespan in mice.

Zhang Y, Xie Y, Berglund ED, Coate KC, He TT, Katafuchi T, Xiao G, Potthoff MJ, Wei W, Wan Y, Yu RT, Evans RM, Kliewer SA, Mangelsdorf DJ.

Elife. 2012 Oct 15;1:e00065. doi: 10.7554/eLife.00065.


Fibroblast growth factor 21 is not required for the reductions in circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 or global cell proliferation rates in response to moderate calorie restriction in adult mice.

Thompson AC, Bruss MD, Nag N, Kharitonenkov A, Adams AC, Hellerstein MK.

PLoS One. 2014 Nov 4;9(11):e111418. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111418. eCollection 2014.


Role of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in undernutrition-related attenuation of growth in mice.

Kubicky RA, Wu S, Kharitonenkov A, De Luca F.

Endocrinology. 2012 May;153(5):2287-95. doi: 10.1210/en.2011-1909. Epub 2012 Feb 28.


Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) inhibits chondrocyte function and growth hormone action directly at the growth plate.

Wu S, Levenson A, Kharitonenkov A, De Luca F.

J Biol Chem. 2012 Jul 27;287(31):26060-7. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.343707. Epub 2012 Jun 13.


Rapid increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 in protein malnutrition and its impact on growth and lipid metabolism.

Ozaki Y, Saito K, Nakazawa K, Konishi M, Itoh N, Hakuno F, Takahashi S, Kato H, Takenaka A.

Br J Nutr. 2015 Nov 14;114(9):1410-8. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002846. Epub 2015 Sep 2. Erratum in: Br J Nutr. 2015 Nov 14;114(9):1535-6.


Growth hormone induces hepatic production of fibroblast growth factor 21 through a mechanism dependent on lipolysis in adipocytes.

Chen W, Hoo RL, Konishi M, Itoh N, Lee PC, Ye HY, Lam KS, Xu A.

J Biol Chem. 2011 Oct 7;286(40):34559-66. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.285965. Epub 2011 Aug 17.


Elevated FGF21 leads to attenuated postnatal linear growth in preterm infants through GH resistance in chondrocytes.

Guasti L, Silvennoinen S, Bulstrode NW, Ferretti P, Sankilampi U, Dunkel L.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Nov;99(11):E2198-206. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1566. Epub 2014 Aug 19.


Endotoxin attenuates growth hormone-induced hepatic insulin-like growth factor I expression by inhibiting JAK2/STAT5 signal transduction and STAT5b DNA binding.

Chen Y, Sun D, Krishnamurthy VM, Rabkin R.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jun;292(6):E1856-62. Epub 2007 Feb 27.


Growth-hormone-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 signaling causes gigantism, inflammation, and premature death but protects mice from aggressive liver cancer.

Friedbichler K, Themanns M, Mueller KM, Schlederer M, Kornfeld JW, Terracciano LM, Kozlov AV, Haindl S, Kenner L, Kolbe T, Mueller M, Snibson KJ, Heim MH, Moriggl R.

Hepatology. 2012 Mar;55(3):941-52. doi: 10.1002/hep.24765. Epub 2012 Jan 13.


FGF21 maintains glucose homeostasis by mediating the cross talk between liver and brain during prolonged fasting.

Liang Q, Zhong L, Zhang J, Wang Y, Bornstein SR, Triggle CR, Ding H, Lam KS, Xu A.

Diabetes. 2014 Dec;63(12):4064-75. doi: 10.2337/db14-0541. Epub 2014 Jul 14.


Exercise and fasting activate growth hormone-dependent myocellular signal transducer and activator of transcription-5b phosphorylation and insulin-like growth factor-I messenger ribonucleic acid expression in humans.

Vendelbo MH, Jørgensen JO, Pedersen SB, Gormsen LC, Lund S, Schmitz O, Jessen N, Møller N.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Sep;95(9):E64-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-0689. Epub 2010 Jun 9.


Endocrine regulation of the fasting response by PPARalpha-mediated induction of fibroblast growth factor 21.

Inagaki T, Dutchak P, Zhao G, Ding X, Gautron L, Parameswara V, Li Y, Goetz R, Mohammadi M, Esser V, Elmquist JK, Gerard RD, Burgess SC, Hammer RE, Mangelsdorf DJ, Kliewer SA.

Cell Metab. 2007 Jun;5(6):415-25.


Hepatic SIRT1 attenuates hepatic steatosis and controls energy balance in mice by inducing fibroblast growth factor 21.

Li Y, Wong K, Giles A, Jiang J, Lee JW, Adams AC, Kharitonenkov A, Yang Q, Gao B, Guarente L, Zang M.

Gastroenterology. 2014 Feb;146(2):539-49.e7. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.10.059. Epub 2013 Nov 1.


Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) in the Regulation of Statural Growth.

Grunwald T, De Luca F.

Curr Pediatr Rev. 2015;11(2):98-105. Review.


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